Political Party Structure And Organization Pdf
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- Political Parties in and Out of Legislatures
- Political Parties in and Out of Legislatures
- State and Local Party Structures: Strengthened and Still Relevant
Political Parties in and Out of Legislatures
Political party , a group of persons organized to acquire and exercise political power. Political parties originated in their modern form in Europe and the United States in the 19th century, along with the electoral and parliamentary systems , whose development reflects the evolution of parties.
The term party has since come to be applied to all organized groups seeking political power, whether by democratic elections or by revolution. In earlier, prerevolutionary, aristocratic and monarchical regimes, the political process unfolded within restricted circles in which cliques and factions, grouped around particular noblemen or influential personalities, were opposed to one another.
The establishment of parliamentary regimes and the appearance of parties at first scarcely changed this situation. To cliques formed around princes, dukes, counts, or marquesses there were added cliques formed around bankers, merchants, industrialists, and businessmen. Regimes supported by nobles were succeeded by regimes supported by other elites. These narrowly based parties were later transformed to a greater or lesser extent, for in the 19th century in Europe and America there emerged parties depending on mass support.
The 20th century saw the spread of political parties throughout the entire world. In less-developed countries, large modern political parties have sometimes been based on traditional relationships, such as ethnic, tribal, or religious affiliations. Moreover, many political parties in less-developed countries are partly political, partly military. Certain socialist and communist parties in Europe earlier experienced the same tendencies.
These last-mentioned European parties demonstrated an equal aptitude for functioning within multiparty democracies and as the sole political party in a dictatorship. Developing originally within the framework of liberal democracy in the 19th century, political parties have been used since the 20th century by dictatorships for entirely undemocratic purposes. A fundamental distinction can be made between cadre parties and mass-based parties.
The two forms coexist in many countries, particularly in western Europe, where communist and socialist parties have emerged alongside the older conservative and liberal parties. Many parties do not fall exactly into either category but combine some characteristics of both. Cadre parties—i. Except in some of the states of the United States, France from , and the German Empire from , the suffrage was largely restricted to taxpayers and property owners, and, even when the right to vote was given to larger numbers of people, political influence was essentially limited to a very small segment of the population.
The mass of people were limited to the role of spectators rather than that of active participants. The cadre parties of the 19th century reflected a fundamental conflict between two classes: the aristocracy on the one hand and the bourgeoisie on the other.
The former, composed of landowners, depended upon rural estates on which a generally unlettered peasantry was held back by a traditionalist clergy. The bourgeoisie , made up of industrialists, merchants, tradesmen, bankers, financiers, and professional people, depended upon the lower classes of clerks and industrial workers in the cities. Both aristocracy and bourgeoisie evolved their own ideology. Bourgeois liberal ideology developed first, originating at the time of the English revolution of the 17th century in the writings of John Locke , an English philosopher.
It was then developed by French philosophers of the 18th century. In its clamouring for formal legal equality and acceptance of the inequities of circumstance, liberal ideology reflected the interests of the bourgeoisie, who wished to destroy the privileges of the aristocracy and eliminate the lingering economic restraints of feudalism and mercantilism. But, insofar as it set forth an egalitarian ideal and a demand for liberty, bourgeois classical liberalism expressed aspirations common to all people.
Conservative ideology, on the other hand, never succeeded in defining themes that would prove as attractive, for it appeared to be more closely allied to the interests of the aristocracy.
For a considerable period, however, conservative sentiment did maintain a considerable impact among the people, since it was presented as the expression of the will of God. In Roman Catholic countries, in which religion was based upon a hierarchically structured and authoritarian clergy, the conservative parties were often the clerical parties, as in France, Italy, and Belgium.
Conservative and liberal cadre parties dominated European politics in the 19th century. Developing during a period of great social and economic upheaval, they exercised power largely through electoral and parliamentary activity. Once in power, their leaders used the power of the army or of the police; the party itself was not generally organized for violent activity. Its local units were charged with assuring moral and financial backing to candidates at election time, as well as with maintaining continual contact between elected officials and the electorate.
The national organization endeavoured to unify the party members who had been elected to the assemblies. In general, the local committees maintained a basic autonomy and each legislator a large measure of independence. The party discipline in voting established by the British parties—which were older because of the fact that the British Parliament was long established—was imitated on the Continent hardly at all.
The first U. Such an interpretation is, of course, simplified. There were some aristocrats in the South and, in particular, an aristocratic spirit based on the institutions of slaveholding and paternalistic ownership of land. In this sense, the Civil War —65 could be considered as a second phase of violent conflict between the conservatives and the liberals. Nevertheless, the United States was from the beginning an essentially bourgeois civilization, based on a deep sense of equality and of individual freedom.
Federalists and Anti-Federalists , Republicans —all belonged to the liberal family since all shared the same basic ideology and the same system of fundamental values and differed only in the means by which they would realize their beliefs.
In terms of party structure, U. Like them, the U. The ties of a local committee to a national organization were even weaker than in Europe. At the state level there was some effective coordination of local party organizations, but at the national level such coordination did not exist. A more original structure was developed after the Civil War—in the South to exploit the votes of African Americans and along the East Coast to control the votes of immigrants.
The extreme decentralization in the United States enabled a party to establish a local quasi-dictatorship in a city or county by capturing all of the key posts in an election. Not only the position of mayor but also the police, finances, and the courts came under the control of the party machine, and the machine was thus a development of the original cadre parties.
The local party committee came typically to be composed of adventurers or gangsters who wanted to control the distribution of wealth and to ensure the continuation of their control. These people were themselves controlled by the power of the boss, the political leader who controlled the machine at the city, county, or state levels. At the direction of the committee, each constituency was carefully divided, and every precinct was watched closely by an agent of the party, the captain, who was responsible for securing votes for the party.
Various rewards were offered to voters in return for the promise of their votes. Operating in this manner, a party could frequently guarantee a majority in an election to the candidates of its choosing, and, once it was in control of local government, of the police, the courts, and public finances, etc.
The degeneration of the party mechanism was not without benefits. The European immigrant who arrived in the United States lost and isolated in a huge and different world might find work and lodging in return for commitment to the party. In a system of almost pure capitalism and at a time when social services were practically nonexistent, machines and bosses took upon themselves responsibilities that were indispensable to community life.
But the moral and material cost of such a system was very high, and the machine was often purely exploitative, performing no services to the community. By the end of the 19th century the excesses of the machines and the bosses and the closed character of the parties led to the development of primary elections , in which party nominees for office were selected.
The primary movement deprived party leaders of the right to dictate candidates for election. A majority of the states adopted the primary system in one form or another between and The aim of the system was to make the parties more democratic by opening them up to the general public in the hope of counterbalancing the influence of the party committees.
In practice, the aim was not realized, for the committees retained the upper hand in the selection of candidates for the primaries. In its original form the British Labour Party constituted a new type of cadre party, forming an intermediate link with the mass-based parties. It was formed with the support of trade unions and left-wing intellectuals. At the base, each local organization sent representatives to a district labour committee, which was in turn represented at the national congress.
The early pre Labour Party was thus structured of many local and regional organizations. It was not possible to join the party directly; membership came only through an affiliated body, such as a trade union. It thus represented a new type of party, depending not upon highly political individuals brought together as a result of their desire to acquire and wield power but upon the organized representatives of a broader interest—the working class.
After the Labour Party developed a policy of direct membership on the model of the Continental socialist parties, individual members being permitted to join local constituency branches. The majority of its membership, however, continued to be affiliated rather than direct for most of the 20th century. At the annual conference, a cap on the proportion of union delegates was set at 50 percent.
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Political Parties in and Out of Legislatures
The families of the presidential candidates joined in the festivities at the Democratic National Convention in Charlotte, North Carolina, left and the Republican National Convention in Tampa, Florida right. If the purpose of political parties is to work together to create and implement policies by winning elections, how do they accomplish this task, and who actually participates in the process? The answer was fairly straightforward in the early days of the republic when parties were little more than electoral coalitions of like-minded, elite politicians. But improvements in strategy and changes in the electorate forced the parties to become far more complex organizations that operate on several levels in the U. Modern political parties consist of three components identified by political scientist V.
Political party , a group of persons organized to acquire and exercise political power. Political parties originated in their modern form in Europe and the United States in the 19th century, along with the electoral and parliamentary systems , whose development reflects the evolution of parties. The term party has since come to be applied to all organized groups seeking political power, whether by democratic elections or by revolution. In earlier, prerevolutionary, aristocratic and monarchical regimes, the political process unfolded within restricted circles in which cliques and factions, grouped around particular noblemen or influential personalities, were opposed to one another. The establishment of parliamentary regimes and the appearance of parties at first scarcely changed this situation.
Political Parties in American Society pp Cite as. Implicit in our discussion of the national party organizations was the significance of the state and local levels of the party. Since the activity and the powers of a party are only partially exercised at the national level, with heavy emphasis on local representation and support, it is necessary to study party organization below the national level to discover what an American party really is. Recent reforms, as we have shown, have made the national organizations much more effective. But it is clear they have to work with the state and local organizations and indeed are dependent on them. If one asks who has the power and who has the responsibility, in vote mobilization terms, the answer for the American system is that the state and local units of the parties share both power and responsibility with the national. Unable to display preview.
but little power is centered in his hands. The lowest level of the organization is the precinct captain. Power itself, how- ever, is distributed between the elected.
State and Local Party Structures: Strengthened and Still Relevant
This article discusses political parties, specifically those that are in and out of legislatures. It first views political parties as institutions and moves on to the party systems. It then considers the two major arenas of action for the political party and considers two core questions about the value of the political party for citizens and for politicians. Keywords: political parties , legislatures , institutions , party systems , arenas of action , value , citizens , politicians. Richard Fenno explained his career-long devotion to the study of the US Congress by saying that Congress is where democracy happens pers.
Political parties operate at the local level in municipal and county elections though many cities choose officials — mayors and members of city council — through nonpartisan elections, in which candidates effectively run as independents without party affiliation. In partisan elections, the party is involved in identifying candidates, providing professional staff, and taking positions on issues of immediate concern to voters. The party leadership recognizes that the interaction between party workers, candidates, and voters is important. In the late 19th century on through a good part of the 20th century, political machines flourished in several large cities; Tammany Hall in New York, Frank Hague in Jersey City, the Pendergast family in Kansas City, and Richard Daley in Chicago are examples.
Когда он шел к выходу по главному коридору, путь ему преградил охранник с телефонной трубкой в руке. - Мистер Беккер, подождите минутку. - В чем дело? - Беккер не рассчитывал, что все это займет так много времени, и теперь опаздывал на свой обычный субботний теннисный матч.
Я тоже хотел бы с ней покувыркаться. Заплачу кучу денег. Хотя спектакль и показался достаточно убедительным, но Беккер зашел слишком. Проституция в Испании запрещена, а сеньор Ролдан был человеком осторожным. Он уже не один раз обжигался, когда полицейские чиновники выдавали себя за похотливых туристов.
Включился звук, и послышался фоновой шум. - Установлена аудиосвязь. Через пять секунд она станет двусторонней. - Кто это такие? - переминаясь с ноги на ногу, спросил Бринкерхофф.
Но еще более страшной ей показалась другая фигура, прятавшаяся в тени, где-то в середине длинной лестницы. Ошибиться было невозможно. Это мощное тело принадлежало Грегу Хейлу.
- Сьюзан пожала плечами, демонстрируя равнодушие.
Фонтейн пришел к выводу, что Стратмор в полном порядке, что он трудится на сто десять процентов, все так же хитер, умен и в высшей степени лоялен, впрочем - как. Лучшее, что мог сделать директор, - не мешать ему работать и наблюдать за тем, как коммандер творит свое чудо. Стратмор разработал план… и план этот Фонтейн не имел ни малейшего намерения срывать. ГЛАВА 75 Пальцы Стратмора время от времени касались беретты, лежавшей у него на коленях.
Нет! - почти крикнул Беккер. - Я хотел сказать… - Чертовщина. - Если бы вы согласились мне помочь. Это так важно.
Код страны - 1. Действительно хорошая новость. ГЛАВА 54 - Пусти. А потом раздался нечеловеческий крик.
Беккер с трудом приподнял голову. Неужели в этой Богом проклятой стране кто-то говорит по-английски. На него сверху вниз смотрел прыщавый бритоголовый коротышка.
- Сердце его колотилось. Как все это глупо, подумал он, быстро выпалил: - Я люблю тебя! - и повесил трубку. Он стоял у края тротуара, пропуская машины. Наверное, она подумает бог знает что: он всегда звонил ей, если обещал.
Наконец-то. Он не знал, каким образом она поняла, что ему нужно кольцо, но был слишком уставшим, чтобы терзаться этим вопросом. Его тело расслабилось, он представил себе, как вручает кольцо сияющему заместителю директора АНБ. А потом они со Сьюзан будут лежать в кровати с балдахином в Стоун-Мэнор и наверстывать упущенное время.
Он тихо выругался. Тогда почему они послали не профессионального агента, а университетского преподавателя.