Natural Gas Sweetening Process Design And Simulation Pdf

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Deep eutectic solvents DESs have received significant attention as potential extracting agents in recent years due to their favorable characteristics including low cost, easy preparation and environmentally safe starting materials. Experimentally screening for highly efficient DESs meeting various requirements for natural gas sweetening remains a challenging task. Reliable thermophysical properties were determined experimentally, and a detailed equilibrium-based model was developed for one of the glycol-based DESs i.

Simulation of CO2 removal in a split-flow gas sweetening process

Deep eutectic solvents DESs have received significant attention as potential extracting agents in recent years due to their favorable characteristics including low cost, easy preparation and environmentally safe starting materials. Experimentally screening for highly efficient DESs meeting various requirements for natural gas sweetening remains a challenging task. Reliable thermophysical properties were determined experimentally, and a detailed equilibrium-based model was developed for one of the glycol-based DESs i.

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: All relevant data are within the manuscript and its Supporting Information files. The funder had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. The global climate has witnessed severe changes in the last decade primarily due to greenhouse gases released by the combustion of coal, oil, and natural gas NG [ 1 ].

This outlook also predicts an accelerated increase in the consumption of NG as an alternative, less-polluting fuel based on emission requirements established by environmental regulatory agencies [ 4 , 5 ].

Thus, there is an urgent need for technologies that can better utilize NG and improve the process to meet regulatory standards. Various CO 2 capture technologies have been proposed since the s, including physical absorption, chemical absorption, and most recently membranes [ 6 , 7 ].

For these reasons, there is a quest for a capture process with less cost and energy requirements. Physical absorption using physical solvents e. The main advantage of physical solvents over aqueous alkanolamines solutions is the lower energy requirement as CO 2 absorption is accomplished through physical interactions without chemical reactions [ 9 , 10 ].

However, this type of technology has several drawbacks as well, including low solubility and selectivity toward CO 2 [ 9 ]. For large-scale applications, drawbacks of ILs include high cost, unidentified toxicity, poor biodegradability, and complicated production and purification technologies in addition to their high viscosity [ 12 , 13 ].

They share the same advantageous features of ILs including negligible vapor pressure, non-flammability, and high thermal stability; in addition to their lower price compared to ILs, biodegradability, and simple preparation [ 11 , 14 ]. For example, choline chloride-based DESs have been widely investigated and reported in the literature as potential CO 2 capture media. Others used the same mixture at a moderate CO 2 pressure of 10 bar to investigate the effect of water on the solubility of the mixture [ 16 , 17 ].

The results from these investigations reveal low CO 2 capture ability, i. This performance was validated by the formation of hydrogen bonds between O—H and N—H of the individual DES components, and the chemical absorption due to the inclusion of the amine.

The addition of 0. However, the viscosity of this DES increased sharply, and a noticeable reduction in solubility was observed when the quantity of L-arginine was increased further. Thus, precise selection of the DES building blocks is an essential task for developing the optimal CO 2 capture process.

However, this is a non-trivial task due to the essentially limitless number of possible choices. Moreover, it is unreasonable to conduct time-consuming and expensive experiments just to confirm the suitability of a certain class of DESs.

Consequently, there has been significant growth in the application of predictive models for estimating thermodynamic properties. Such methods are crucial for the design of new DESs with specific industrial applications, expanding the rapidly growing set of available or potentially available DESs.

In terms of thermodynamic calculations, the COSMO-RS model has been reported to produce good qualitative results and satisfying quantitative predictions of activity coefficients of neutral compounds in ILs [ 24 ]. The same model was also used by Hanee [ 25 ] to screen potential DESs for the removal of aromatic nitrogen compounds from diesel fuel.

Lei et al. Ali et al. The results show good agreement between this model and the experimentally reported data. Zubeir et al. Xie et al. The objective of the present study is to investigate the potential use of DESs as physical solvents for CO 2 capture. Thus, a predictive modeling technique based on the quantum chemistry method is proposed for screening novel DES combinations in order to select a new class of DESs with high performance. Furthermore, experiments were conducted to validate the VLE data and to identify certain thermophysical parameters e.

Cambridge, MA. The simulation results were validated by comparison with benchmark physical solvents i. All chemicals were utilized without further purification. Details of the list of chemicals used, their purity and abbreviation are presented in Table 1.

Each salt was mixed with the corresponding HBD using magnetic stirring at rpm and Afterward, the mixture was placed in a moisture-controlled area to cool down at room temperature. The solvent screening set-up is a bench-scale laboratory equipment which consists of six batch process reactors.

The CO 2 absorption experiment was initiated by filling the reactor vessel with DES to the mL mark, and purging the empty air space with nitrogen in order to eliminate any pre-existing gases in the system before the experiment. Then, CO 2 was fed into a make-up vessel to a pressure of 2 atm, after all residual gases have been eliminated by the N 2 , to ensure that enough pressure is attained and sustained in the reactors.

The CO 2 absorption was observed at 1. MFC stands for mass flow controller. COSMO-RS is a thermodynamic model based on quantum chemistry that can be used to estimate the chemical potential of molecules in liquids; In addition, other properties such as solubility, activity, and vapor pressure can be calculated using chemical potential [ 30 ].

The attractiveness of this method is that it is purely predictive, based on first principles, and does not require group parameters or any system-specific adjustments [ 23 , 31 ].

Five salts and 34 HBDs reported in Tables 3 and 4 were investigated in this work. TZVP parameterization was chosen because it gives more meaningful values in terms of hydrogen bonding interactions, which is a vital interaction between the CO 2 compound and DESs [ 25 ].

Representative DESs can be obtained by one of the three approaches: i the metafile approach, ii the ion pair approach, and iii the electro-neutral approach [ 23 , 34 ]. In this study, the third approach, whereby DESs are considered as completely dissociated ions cation and anion with respect to their mole ratio, was adopted.

Indeed, in liquid form, DESs can be viewed as three distinct species, i. In fact, the selectivity of a given solvent for one gas denoted as a to another denoted as b can be calculated using Eq 1. The conceptual capture process is a typical absorption-desorption process.

The process simulations were performed in the equation-oriented mode, which solves mass and energy balances while simultaneously avoiding nested convergence loops and is more effective for processes containing recycling streams and design specifications than those of the sequential modular mode [ 35 ]. The objective of the simulation was to test the effectiveness of the selected DESs in a closed loop process. This helps in estimating the inventory and energy requirement for a typical industrial-scale CO 2 capture process.

The gas operating conditions and compositions selected in this study are listed in Table 5. The process mainly consists of absorption and regeneration columns. The treated gas exits from the top of the absorber while the CO 2 -rich solvent exits from bottom.

The rich solvent leaving the absorber flows to the flash drum to remove any impurities that might cause problems for the equipment in this process. The heated rich solvent flows into the stripper where CO 2 is regenerated from the solvent through heat input to the reboiler.

Makeup solvent is added to the recycled lean solvent as well, which accounts for any loss of solvent. These coefficients were regressed from experimental data obtained in this work S5 Table in S1 File.

The remainder of the unknown properties including pseudo-critical properties, molar heat capacity, enthalpy of vaporization, and liquid vapor pressure of the DES pseudo-components were estimated by the methods and models implicitly used in Aspen Plus S1, S6, S7, S8 and S9 Tables in S1 File ; the same methodology was developed for IL S [ 35 ].

To the best of our knowledge, there are no publication regarding the process simulation of this family of DES. In this work, the equilibrium approach was used. In the equilibrium-based model, the liquid and gas phases are assumed to be in equilibrium [ 37 ].

In addition to these parameters, the COSMO-SAC model requires a set of pure component physical properties which were determined experimentally and theoretically, using Group contribution methods. The average absolute error AAE and root mean square deviation RMSD were chosen to measure the accuracy of the predictive model, as defined in Eqs 2 and 3 , respectively.

The scatter plots in Fig 6 show the systematic error of the distribution between the predicted and experimental CO 2 solubility data. In fact, the calculated solubilities are systematically over-predicted when compared with experimental data. The predicted and experimental values gave AAEs ranging from 0. More specifically, for amine-based DESs e. Hence, DESs based on this salt are featured as potential candidates for reliable predicted data in the screening phase.

The comparison with experimental trends shows that the model mostly accurately predicts the effects of changing the molar ratio of the cations and anions of the DESs, temperature, and pressure. The predicted CO 2 solubilities are in the range of those of typical physical solvents. The amino acid group has been the most effective of all of the HBD groups covered in this work, achieving high solubility values.

However, because of its high viscosity, it would not make a good choice for such applications [ 40 ]. A large absorption capacity for CO 2 or H 2 S alone cannot be used to suggest that a DES has the potential for gas treatment applications because it is also likely that it will have a high capacity for CH 4 and C 2 H 6.

Thus, the selectivity of the DES requires investigation as well. Solubility index range 0—0. However, the selectivity toward C 2 H 6 and C 3 H 8 are high. Experimental measurements of solubility data for the systems screened in this work are essential. Thus, three DESs with the highest solubilities of CO 2 were chosen to carry out additional experimental measurements on CO 2 solubility.

The samples were prepared using the protocol described in this work. The predicted values were slightly underestimated by a factor of 1. The thermodynamic and physical properties determined in this study for potential DES candidates for CO 2 capture are given in the supporting information; these properties shall be used in the process simulation of the NG sweetening process.

The thermophysical properties of the other components i. Temperature-dependent properties including density, viscosity, and heat of vaporization of DESs at atmospheric pressure are fitted using the recommended fitting model in ASPEN Plus.

Before evaluating the performance of the new DES solvent, the developed Aspen model was used to estimate and evaluate the performance of a glycol-based solvent MEG and then its results were compared with a baseline case.

In this work, the model developed by Alnili and Barifcani [ 36 ] was chosen to be the baseline point for comparison. The simulation was conducted using the equilibrium model approach to simulate the absorber and stripper.

The number of theoretical stages for the absorber and stripper was set to 40 and 20, respectively, based on the baseline work. The reflux ratio and column duty were selected as column design specifications.

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You must log in to edit PetroWiki. Help with editing. Content of PetroWiki is intended for personal use only and to supplement, not replace, engineering judgment. SPE disclaims any and all liability for your use of such content. More information. Sour natural gas compositions can vary over a wide concentration of H 2 S and CO 2 and a wide concentration of hydrocarbon components. If the H 2 S content exceeds the sales gas specification limit, the excess H 2 S must be separated from the sour gas.

Skip to main content Skip to table of contents. This service is more advanced with JavaScript available. Encyclopedia of Membranes Edition. Editors: Enrico Drioli, Lidietta Giorno. Contents Search.

Richard Ochieng, Abdallah S. We show how a multiobjective bare-bones particle swarm optimization can be used for a process parameter tuning and performance enhancement of a natural gas sweetening unit. This has been made through maximization of hydrocarbon recovery and minimization of the total energy of the process as the two objectives of the optimization. A trade-off exists between these two objectives as illustrated by the Pareto front. This algorithm has been applied to a sweetening unit that uses the Benfield HiPure process. Detailed models of the natural gas unit are developed in ProMax process simulator and integrated to the multi-objective optimization developed in visual basic environment VBA. In this study, the solvent circulation rates, stripper pressure and reboiler duties are considered as the decision variables while hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide concentrations in the sweetened gas are considered as process constraints.

PDF | Abstract Sweetening of natural gas is accomplished in this master thesis via cordial litterateur review, variety methods of engineering design and | Find.

Membranes for Natural Gas Sweetening

Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. DOI: Split-flow gas sweetening is known to consume less energy than a conventional gas sweetening process when the inlet sour gas contains a high concentration of acid gases. The input of parameters such as the concentration of sour gases CO2, H2S in the feed gas has been examined.

There exists large space to save energy of high-sulfur natural gas purification process. The multi-objective optimization problem has been investigated to effectively reduce the total comprehensive energy consumption and further improve the production rate of purified gas. A steady-state simulation model of high-sulfur natural gas purification process has been set up by using ProMax. Seven key operating parameters of the purification process have been determined based on the analysis of comprehensive energy consumption distribution. To solve the problem that the process model does not converge in some conditions, back-propagation BP neural network has been applied to substitute the simulation model to predict the relative parameters in the optimization model.

Received: 18 February Accepted: 1 June The removal of acid gases, CO 2 and H 2 S from natural gas streams is essential for environmental and health reasons. Firstly, the effect of trays types and then, the effect of various packing and the effect of the packing size were considered on the flow rate of CO 2 and H 2 S in the main streams. Results show that with considering the different trays types in the regenerator tower, the flow rate of CO 2 in the sweet gas stream with bubble cap tray is lower than other trays types.

Multiobjective Optimization of a Benfield HiPure Gas Sweetening Unit

Chemical Engineering Process Simulation

Chemical Engineering Process Simulation is ideal for students, early career researchers, and practitioners, as it guides you through chemical processes and unit operations using the main simulation softwares that are used in the industrial sector. This book will help you predict the characteristics of a process using mathematical models and computer-aided process simulation tools, as well as model and simulate process performance before detailed process design takes place. Content coverage includes steady and dynamic simulations, the similarities and differences between process simulators, an introduction to operating units, and convergence tips and tricks. You will also learn about the use of simulation for risk studies to enhance process resilience, fault finding in abnormal situations, and for training operators to control the process in difficult situations. This experienced author team combines industry knowledge with effective teaching methods to make an accessible and clear comprehensive guide to process simulation. Process engineers, chemical engineers, chemical engineering students graduates and post-graduates. Professor Ir.

In this research, firstly, a commercial gas sweetening unit with methyl-di-ethanol-amine MDEA solution is simulated and comprised in an integrated model in accordance with Aspen HYSYS software. According to the simulation results, the considerable energy potential contributed to the pressure difference between absorber and regenerator columns causes this energy driving force to be applied in power recovery turbine PRT. In the last step, the amount of waste hydraulic energy is calculated, and its recovery methods are investigated. Commenced in January

Multi-objective optimization of high-sulfur natural gas purification plant

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