Difference Between Elastic And Plastic Deformation Pdf

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difference between elastic and plastic deformation pdf

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Elastic limit , maximum stress or force per unit area within a solid material that can arise before the onset of permanent deformation. When stresses up to the elastic limit are removed, the material resumes its original size and shape. Stresses beyond the elastic limit cause a material to yield or flow. For such materials the elastic limit marks the end of elastic behaviour and the beginning of plastic behaviour.

Plastic vs Elastic Deformation

Elastic deformation refers to a temporary deformation of a material's shape that is self-reversing after removing the force or load. Elastic deformation alters the shape of a material upon the application of a force within its elastic limit. This physical property ensures that elastic materials will regain their original dimensions following the release of the applied load.

Here deformation is reversible and non-permanent. Elastic deformation of metals and ceramics is commonly seen at low strains; their elastic behavior is generally linear. When metals are placed under small loads or stresses, they deform. When the applied loads are removed, metals return to their original shape. This temporary deformation of metals is known as elastic deformation.

Elastic deformation involves the temporary stretching or bending of bonds between atoms. For example, when bending a steel sheet, the bonds are bent or stretched only a few percent but the atoms do not slip past each other.

In contrast, plastic deformation occurs when these stresses are sufficient to permanently deform the metal. In plastic deformation, breaking of bonds is caused by the dislocation of atoms. The elastic deformation of material allows them to recover from stress and restore their normal functionality. But these properties degrade over time and in some conditions the material can become brittle and lose their ductility.

Materials become less pliable when cold or subjected to hardening chemicals that interfere with their elasticity. To retain or increase a material's elasticity, some softening materials are added to the mix. For example, special softening materials can be added to the polymer plastics mix to allow them to bend and give under pressure without permanently changing their shape.

Toggle navigation Menu. Definition - What does Elastic Deformation mean? Corrosionpedia explains Elastic Deformation When metals are placed under small loads or stresses, they deform. Share this:.

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Deformation is the effect of change in the shape of a physical object when an external force is applied to the surface. The forces can be applied as normal, tangential or torques on the surface. If a body does not change its shape, even slightly due to external forces, the object is defined as a perfect solid object. Perfect solid bodies are not present in nature; every object has its own deformations. In this article, we are going to discuss what elastic deformation and plastic deformation are, how they are encountered in nature, and what are their applications. When an exterior stress is applied to a solid body, the body tends to pull itself apart.

Deformation is the action or process of deforming or distorting. When a force is applied to an object, the object will either compress or stretch as a response to the force. In mechanics, the force applied to a unit area is called stress. The extent of stretching or compressing as a response to the stress is called strain. Every material responds differently to stress. The response is highly dependent on the chemical bond type of the substance.

Both, elastic and plastic materials are widely applicable and used in the field of science and technology. Thus, it is easier to understand these properties in terms of physics. They describe the attributes of materials such as rubber, plastic, metal, etc. In physics, when an external force is applied to the surface of any material or a body, the material undergoes a physical change or deformation. Now, when the force is removed, the material depending on its properties may or may not return to its original shape.


Elastic deformation is a temporary deformation under the action of external loading. Plastic deformation is the permanent deformation. Once the external load is removed from an elastically deformed body, it regains its original shape.


Difference Between Elastic and Plastic Deformation

Elastic deformation refers to a temporary deformation of a material's shape that is self-reversing after removing the force or load. Elastic deformation alters the shape of a material upon the application of a force within its elastic limit. This physical property ensures that elastic materials will regain their original dimensions following the release of the applied load. Here deformation is reversible and non-permanent. Elastic deformation of metals and ceramics is commonly seen at low strains; their elastic behavior is generally linear.

We referred to the proportionality constant between stress and strain as the elastic modulus. But why do we call it that? What does it mean for an object to be elastic and how do we describe its behavior?

Objects deform when pushed, pulled, and twisted. Elasticity is the measure of the amount that the object can return to its original shape after these external forces and pressures stop. The opposite of elasticity is plasticity ; when something is stretched, and it stays stretched, the material is said to be plastic. When energy goes into changing the shape of some material and it stays changed, that is said to be plastic deformation.

Functionally graded material shafts are the main part of many modern rotary machines such as turbines and electric motors.

2 Comments

  1. Patrice H. 13.05.2021 at 04:38

    When energy goes into changing the shape of some material and it stays changed, that is said to be.

  2. Cialonfeli 17.05.2021 at 11:15

    In every engineering application solid structures are subjected to external loading.