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- What is the IoT? Everything you need to know about the Internet of Things right now
- Internet of Things and Big Data Applications
- Internet of Things is a revolutionary approach for future technology enhancement: a review
What is the IoT? Everything you need to know about the Internet of Things right now
Things have evolved due to the convergence of multiple technologies, real-time analytics , machine learning , commodity sensors , and embedded systems. In the consumer market, IoT technology is most synonymous with products pertaining to the concept of the " smart home ", including devices and appliances such as lighting fixtures, thermostats , home security systems and cameras, and other home appliances that support one or more common ecosystems, and can be controlled via devices associated with that ecosystem, such as smartphones and smart speakers.
IoT can also be used in healthcare systems. There are a number of serious concerns about dangers in the growth of IoT, especially in the areas of privacy and security , and consequently industry and governmental moves to address these concerns have begun including the development of international standards.
The main concept of a network of smart devices was discussed as early as , with a modified Coca-Cola vending machine at Carnegie Mellon University becoming the first Internet-connected appliance,  able to report its inventory and whether newly loaded drinks were cold or not. The field gained momentum when Bill Joy envisioned device-to-device communication as a part of his "Six Webs" framework, presented at the World Economic Forum at Davos in The extensive set of applications for IoT devices  is often divided into consumer, commercial, industrial, and infrastructure spaces.
A growing portion of IoT devices are created for consumer use, including connected vehicles, home automation , wearable technology , connected health, and appliances with remote monitoring capabilities. IoT devices are a part of the larger concept of home automation , which can include lighting, heating and air conditioning, media and security systems and camera systems.
A smart home or automated home could be based on a platform or hubs that control smart devices and appliances. One key application of a smart home is to provide assistance for those with disabilities and elderly individuals.
These home systems use assistive technology to accommodate an owner's specific disabilities. These features can include sensors that monitor for medical emergencies such as falls or seizures. The term "Enterprise IoT" refers to devices used in business and corporate settings. By , it is estimated that the EIoT will account for 9. The Internet of Medical Things IoMT is an application of the IoT for medical and health related purposes, data collection and analysis for research, and monitoring.
IoT devices can be used to enable remote health monitoring and emergency notification systems. These health monitoring devices can range from blood pressure and heart rate monitors to advanced devices capable of monitoring specialized implants, such as pacemakers, Fitbit electronic wristbands, or advanced hearing aids.
It can also adjust itself to ensure appropriate pressure and support is applied to the patient without the manual interaction of nurses.
Specialized sensors can also be equipped within living spaces to monitor the health and general well-being of senior citizens, while also ensuring that proper treatment is being administered and assisting people regain lost mobility via therapy as well. These sensors, along with the required RFID electronics, can be fabricated on paper or e-textiles for wireless powered disposable sensing devices.
As of [update] IoMT was not only being applied in the clinical laboratory industry,  but also in the healthcare and health insurance industries.
IoMT in the healthcare industry is now permitting doctors, patients, and others, such as guardians of patients, nurses, families, and similar, to be part of a system, where patient records are saved in a database, allowing doctors and the rest of the medical staff to have access to patient information. This includes sensor-based solutions such as biosensors, wearables, connected health devices, and mobile apps to track customer behaviour. This can lead to more accurate underwriting and new pricing models.
The application of the IoT in healthcare plays a fundamental role in managing chronic diseases and in disease prevention and control. Remote monitoring is made possible through the connection of powerful wireless solutions. The connectivity enables health practitioners to capture patient's data and applying complex algorithms in health data analysis. The IoT can assist in the integration of communications, control, and information processing across various transportation systems.
Application of the IoT extends to all aspects of transportation systems i. Dynamic interaction between these components of a transport system enables inter- and intra-vehicular communication,  smart traffic control , smart parking, electronic toll collection systems , logistics and fleet management , vehicle control , safety, and road assistance.
In vehicular communication systems , vehicle-to-everything communication V2X , consists of three main components: vehicle to vehicle communication V2V , vehicle to infrastructure communication V2I and vehicle to pedestrian communications V2P. V2X is the first step to autonomous driving and connected road infrastructure. IoT devices can be used to monitor and control the mechanical, electrical and electronic systems used in various types of buildings e.
In this context, three main areas are being covered in literature: . Also known as IIoT, industrial IoT devices acquire and analyze data from connected equipment, operational technology OT , locations and people. Combined with operational technology OT monitoring devices, IIoT helps regulate and monitor industrial systems. Also, the same implementation can be carried out for automated record updates of asset placement in industrial storage units as the size of the assets can vary from a small screw till the whole motor spare part and misplacement of such assets can cause a percentile loss of manpower time and money.
The IoT can connect various manufacturing devices equipped with sensing, identification, processing, communication, actuation, and networking capabilities. Digital control systems to automate process controls, operator tools and service information systems to optimize plant safety and security are within the purview of the IIoT. Measurements, automated controls, plant optimization, health and safety management, and other functions are provided by networked sensors.
There are numerous IoT applications in farming  such as collecting data on temperature, rainfall, humidity, wind speed, pest infestation, and soil content. This data can be used to automate farming techniques, take informed decisions to improve quality and quantity, minimise risk and waste, and reduce effort required to manage crops. For example, farmers can now monitor soil temperature and moisture from afar, and even apply IoT-acquired data to precision fertilisation programs.
In August , Toyota Tsusho began a partnership with Microsoft to create fish farming tools using the Microsoft Azure application suite for IoT technologies related to water management. Developed in part by researchers from Kindai University , the water pump mechanisms use artificial intelligence to count the number of fish on a conveyor belt , analyze the number of fish, and deduce the effectiveness of water flow from the data the fish provide.
IoT devices are in use monitoring the environments and systems of boats and yachts. Monitoring and controlling operations of sustainable urban and rural infrastructures like bridges, railway tracks and on- and offshore wind-farms is a key application of the IoT. The IoT can benefit the construction industry by cost saving, time reduction, better quality workday, paperless workflow and increase in productivity. It can help in taking faster decisions and save money with Real-Time Data Analytics.
It can also be used for scheduling repair and maintenance activities in an efficient manner, by coordinating tasks between different service providers and users of these facilities. Usage of IoT devices for monitoring and operating infrastructure is likely to improve incident management and emergency response coordination, and quality of service , up-times and reduce costs of operation in all infrastructure related areas. There are several planned or ongoing large-scale deployments of the IoT, to enable better management of cities and systems.
Much of the city is planned to be wired and automated, with little or no human intervention. Another application is a currently undergoing project in Santander , Spain.
For this deployment, two approaches have been adopted. This city of , inhabitants has already seen 18, downloads of its city smartphone app. The app is connected to 10, sensors that enable services like parking search, environmental monitoring, digital city agenda, and more.
City context information is used in this deployment so as to benefit merchants through a spark deals mechanism based on city behavior that aims at maximizing the impact of each notification. Other examples of large-scale deployments underway include the Sino-Singapore Guangzhou Knowledge City;  work on improving air and water quality, reducing noise pollution, and increasing transportation efficiency in San Jose, California;  and smart traffic management in western Singapore.
The network was designed and engineered by Fluidmesh Networks, a Chicago-based company developing wireless networks for critical applications. With the wireless network in place, NY Waterway is able to take control of its fleet and passengers in a way that was not previously possible.
New applications can include security, energy and fleet management, digital signage, public Wi-Fi, paperless ticketing and others. Significant numbers of energy-consuming devices e. Environmental monitoring applications of the IoT typically use sensors to assist in environmental protection  by monitoring air or water quality ,  atmospheric or soil conditions ,  and can even include areas like monitoring the movements of wildlife and their habitats.
IoT devices in this application typically span a large geographic area and can also be mobile. Another example of integrating the IoT is Living Lab which integrates and combines research and innovation process, establishing within a public-private-people-partnership. For companies to implement and develop IoT services for smart cities, they need to have incentives. The governments play key roles in smart city projects as changes in policies will help cities to implement the IoT which provides effectiveness, efficiency, and accuracy of the resources that are being used.
For instance, the government provides tax incentives and cheap rent, improves public transports, and offers an environment where start-up companies, creative industries, and multinationals may co-create, share a common infrastructure and labor markets, and take advantage of locally embedded technologies, production process, and transaction costs. The Internet of Military Things IoMT is the application of IoT technologies in the military domain for the purposes of reconnaissance, surveillance, and other combat-related objectives.
It is heavily influenced by the future prospects of warfare in an urban environment and involves the use of sensors, munitions, vehicles, robots, human-wearable biometrics, and other smart technology that is relevant on the battlefield.
The Ocean of Things project is a DARPA -led program designed to establish an Internet of Things across large ocean areas for the purposes of collecting, monitoring, and analyzing environmental and vessel activity data.
The project entails the deployment of about 50, floats that house a passive sensor suite that autonomously detect and track military and commercial vessels as part of a cloud-based network. There are several applications of smart or active packaging in which a QR code or NFC tag is affixed on a product or its packaging. The tag itself is passive, however it contains a unique identifier typically a URL which enables a user to access digital content about the product via a smartphone.
The IoT's major significant trend in recent years is the explosive growth of devices connected and controlled by the Internet. The IoT creates opportunities for more direct integration of the physical world into computer-based systems, resulting in efficiency improvements, economic benefits, and reduced human exertions. Ambient intelligence and autonomous control are not part of the original concept of the Internet of things.
Ambient intelligence and autonomous control do not necessarily require Internet structures, either. However, there is a shift in research by companies such as Intel to integrate the concepts of the IoT and autonomous control, with initial outcomes towards this direction considering objects as the driving force for autonomous IoT.
By reinforcement learning approach, a learning agent can sense the environment's state e. For example, an autonomous vehicle's camera needs to make real-time obstacle detection to avoid an accident. This fast decision making would not be possible through transferring data from the vehicle to cloud instances and return the predictions back to the vehicle. Instead, all the operation should be performed locally in the vehicle.
Integrating advanced machine learning algorithms including deep learning into IoT devices is an active research area to make smart objects closer to reality. Moreover, it is possible to get the most value out of IoT deployments through analyzing IoT data, extracting hidden information, and predicting control decisions.
A wide variety of machine learning techniques have been used in IoT domain ranging from traditional methods such as regression , support vector machine , and random forest to advanced ones such as convolutional neural networks , LSTM , and variational autoencoder. In the future, the Internet of Things may be a non-deterministic and open network in which auto-organized or intelligent entities web services , SOA components and virtual objects avatars will be interoperable and able to act independently pursuing their own objectives or shared ones depending on the context, circumstances or environments.
Autonomous behavior through the collection and reasoning of context information as well as the object's ability to detect changes in the environment faults affecting sensors and introduce suitable mitigation measures constitutes a major research trend,  clearly needed to provide credibility to the IoT technology.
Modern IoT products and solutions in the marketplace use a variety of different technologies to support such context-aware automation, but more sophisticated forms of intelligence are requested to permit sensor units and intelligent cyber-physical systems to be deployed in real environments.
It includes various database systems that store sensor data, such as time series databases or asset stores using backend data storage systems e. Cassandra, PostgreSQL. Building on the Internet of things, the web of things is an architecture for the application layer of the Internet of things looking at the convergence of data from IoT devices into Web applications to create innovative use-cases.
In order to program and control the flow of information in the Internet of things, a predicted architectural direction is being called BPM Everywhere which is a blending of traditional process management with process mining and special capabilities to automate the control of large numbers of coordinated devices. The Internet of things requires huge scalability in the network space to handle the surge of devices.
With billions of devices  being added to the Internet space, IPv6 will play a major role in handling the network layer scalability. Fog computing is a viable alternative to prevent such large burst of data flow through Internet.
Limited processing power is a key attribute of IoT devices as their purpose is to supply data about physical objects while remaining autonomous.
Internet of Things and Big Data Applications
It seems that you're in Germany. We have a dedicated site for Germany. Editors: Balas , Valentina E. This book provides essential future directions for IoT and Big Data research. Thanks to rapid advances in sensors and wireless technology, Internet of Things IoT -related applications are attracting more and more attention.
The Internet of Things, or IoT, refers to the billions of physical devices around the world that are now connected to the internet, all collecting and sharing data. Connecting up all these different objects and adding sensors to them adds a level of digital intelligence to devices that would be otherwise dumb, enabling them to communicate real-time data without involving a human being. The Internet of Things is making the fabric of the world around us more smarter and more responsive, merging the digital and physical universes. Pretty much any physical object can be transformed into an IoT device if it can be connected to the internet to be controlled or communicate information. A lightbulb that can be switched on using a smartphone app is an IoT device, as is a motion sensor or a smart thermostat in your office or a connected streetlight.
of cloud computing, Big Data, mobility, and the Internet of Things. The conver- ctarchery.org (). Accessed 15 July
Internet of Things is a revolutionary approach for future technology enhancement: a review
Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. Elmogy and Shereif I. Elmogy , Shereif I. Barakat Published Engineering.
Future Generation Computer Systems
Things have evolved due to the convergence of multiple technologies, real-time analytics , machine learning , commodity sensors , and embedded systems. In the consumer market, IoT technology is most synonymous with products pertaining to the concept of the " smart home ", including devices and appliances such as lighting fixtures, thermostats , home security systems and cameras, and other home appliances that support one or more common ecosystems, and can be controlled via devices associated with that ecosystem, such as smartphones and smart speakers. IoT can also be used in healthcare systems. There are a number of serious concerns about dangers in the growth of IoT, especially in the areas of privacy and security , and consequently industry and governmental moves to address these concerns have begun including the development of international standards. The main concept of a network of smart devices was discussed as early as , with a modified Coca-Cola vending machine at Carnegie Mellon University becoming the first Internet-connected appliance,  able to report its inventory and whether newly loaded drinks were cold or not. The field gained momentum when Bill Joy envisioned device-to-device communication as a part of his "Six Webs" framework, presented at the World Economic Forum at Davos in
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