Crisis And Capitalism In Contemporary Argentine Cinema Pdf
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There has been a significant surge in recent Argentine cinema, with an explosion in the number of films made in the country since the mids. Many of these productions have been highly acclaimed by critics in Argentina and elsewhere. What makes this boom all the more extraordinary is its coinciding with a period of severe economic crisis and civil unrest in the nation.
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- University of Calgary Press
- Centre of Latin American Studies
Rowena Santos Aquino. Download PDF. A short summary of this paper. In his book History by Hollywood, historian Robert Brent Toplin points out that, "films that portray real people and actual events from American history often excite lively debates" 1.
Unlike previous works that have considered how Hollywood transforms the events and lives of real people on screen, Toplin argues that scholars must consider how the films are produced, what the context of the important political and social events of the time of release were, and how the filmmakers respond to actual historical evidence while also trying to tell a "good" story 2.
These questions, along with his four approaches of exercising artistic licensecommunicating through fact and fiction; drawing lessons: making the past relevant to the present; opening debate: revealing current controversy in portrayals of the past; and accenting heroism: celebrating the "great person" in a documentary style -structure the book and his argument.
Toplin divides the book into four parts that correspond with his four methodological approaches. In each part, he provides case studies that examine how his selected films correspond with his approaches to the study of the connection between film and history. He analyzes a total of eight films to illustrate his larger point about how Hollywood has struggled with its desires to tell marketable stories and in the process represent history accurately.
In Part One he looks at two controversial films that retell the history of America's chaotic cultural and political progress during the s. In his discussion of Mississippi Burning Alan Parker, in Chapter One, Toplin shows how the needs of the studio and the filmmakers to ensure the film would appeal to white audiences manifested themselves by making the white agents from the F.
In fact Lyndon Johnson ordered J. Edgar Hoover to send agents in to help quell the violence in Mississippi in the summer of , an action that Hoover did not support wholeheartedly.
As Toplin points out, the movie angered many critics and African American viewers because of its glossing over of the contributions of African American activists in the state at the time. He notes that, "ultimately Mississippi Burning represents a lost opportunity" because the people involved in the production and marketing of the film "lost sight of the message" about the terror imposed on many African Americans in the South from the days of slavery through the era of Civil Rights He argues that, "few movies have made as great an impact on public affairs as JFK did" The film ignited a firestorm of controversy along with renewed interest in the facts of Kennedy's assassination in November of Yet, as Toplin notes, much of the controversy over the film was a result of its liberal creator, Oliver Stone, who decided to focus his story on the possibility of a conspiracy and the efforts of Jim Garrison to use his office to prove to America that Oswald had not acted alone.
Despite the scholars, historians, and government officials who claimed Garrison's view of the events inaccurate or impossible, Stone based his entire film around Garrison's crusade and the bizarre events he uncovered.
Toplin acknowledges that this strategy makes for an exciting film but from a historical angle hinders the film's effectiveness "to win broader applause for finding imaginative ways to stimulate the public's thinking about the past" Both of these films, Toplin suggests, were valuable tools of propaganda.
Sergeant York he shows served to drum up American support for the need of U. However, where SergeantYork depicted American military might in a positive light, Toplin illustrates that the effects of America's military morphed into something extremely negative and dangerous for average American citizens and other nations when he looks at how Missing was produced and later received in the United States during Ronald Reagan's first term in office.
Schaffner, Bonnie and Clyde, now recognized according to Toplin as a landmark film in the development of a "New Hollywood" attuned to the interests of young liberal audiences in the s, was successful during the s because of how the film from its inception was designed to capture the spirit and angst of the s, including the increasing disdain for authority figures and the common place usage of violence For Toplin, even more important than these elements within the film are its associations with the public's growing fear of violent crime that was on the rise during the s.
Some audiences, he argues, were alarmed that the popularity of the film could spark a crime wave, as young people could be tempted to copy the actions and behaviors displayed in the film. In fact, it was these fears which, he argues, ultimately harmed the film's chance to be taken serious as a new form of artistic endeavor. However, what makes the film so important for film scholars and audiences, claims Toplin, is the way in which a film set in the s elicited wide spread discussion about the nature of the American dream, crime, and youthful anxiety in the s.
Toplin argues that Patton, unlike Bonnie and Clyde, resonated with conservative audiences and politicians like Richard Nixon, because it depicted American military might as benevolent and resolute at a time when questions over America's involvement in Vietnam dominated the social and political landscape. The importance of the military to the films production and reception are discussed by Toplin when he documents how Daryl Zanuck and 20 th -Century Fox elicited the financial and advisory support of the U.
Yet, with the publication of a new biography of the general that was in-depth and sympathetic, Toplin shows how 20 th -Century Fox found the necessary story material and support for the film that in turn helped secure the film's financial success.
The combination of these elements, along with the support of President Nixon and the winning of Best Picture for , Toplin argues, perfectly demonstrate how a film that portrays past events and people could be used by critics and audiences alike to debate present day concerns.
The last two chapters of the book deconstruct the most common usage of history in Hollywood, namely the idea of the great man in history. Pakula, used elements of genre to create an image of Woodward and Bernstein on screen that made them seem heroic and dynamic, despite the historical facts that they were not the only investigative reporters working on the Watergate story and its impact on American government. Despite these shortcomings, Toplin labels the film as "one of Hollywood's better examples of cinematic history" In Chapter Eight, he examines how second wave feminism impacted Hollywood's representation of women on film, especially as agents of change in the film Norma Rae Martin Ritt, He explains that, "Norma Rae was marketed to the American public as a story about a female Rocky" and that it was this strategy that ultimately undermined the film's attempt to highlight the struggles of workers in a changing American economy Toplin's book does provide some useful methodological approaches, which can be used in the teaching of the connection between cinema and history.
However, its weakness is that it relies too much on the words and deeds of the producers and financiers and does not spend as much time looking at the role culture played in the formation of scripts and overall marketing.
Still, it is a good text designed for classroom use, but it does not challenge or provide new theoretical approaches to the consideration of how history is situated within film studies.
Douglas Kellner's book Cinema Wars: Hollywood Film and Politics in theBush-Cheney Era is representative of Toplin's idea that contemporary films can be utilized to discuss political and historical currents within a given period of time.
Kellner states that the goal of his study is "to show that the turbulence of the era is reproduced in the Hollywood films of the s" 1. In order to make this claim, he uses the method of "transcode" to read the films 2 , a technique which, he notes, allows him "to describe how specific political discourses like Reaganism or liberalism are translated or encoded into media texts" 2.
For him this strategy of analysis enables him to see how what he terms "cinema wars" have been intensely fought over by mainstream filmmaking, filmmakers, politicians and audiences, especially during the s as a result of the "war on terror" and increasing efforts to transform the United States into a police state Underlining the entirety of Kellner's book is a negative reaction to the policies of the Bush administration and a belief that the public's awareness or lack thereof to the real nature of those policies can be located within the films of the period.
In Chapter One, entitled 'Confronting the Horrors of the Bush-Cheney Era', Kellner examines how the rise in popularity and production of documentary films was a direct result of the mainstream media's inability or apathy to investigate what was occurring in government and within large multi-national corporations like Walmart.
Kellner reads Robert Greenwald's film Wal-Mart: The High Cost of Low Price as an example of how the Bush tax cuts for corporations and millionaires enabled companies like Walmart to increase their profit margins by producing cheap goods in China, which in turn were sold in America. This strategy allowed the company to expand, according to Kellner's reading, and ensured that American workers would continue to see declining wages and buying power Therefore Greenwald's documentary provides a service for American and global audiences that was lacking in news organizations.
He analyzes films like United 93 Paul Greengrass, and World Trade Center Oliver Stone, along with the development of television series like 24 Fox, Fox, and how they attempted to capture the zeitgeist of American fears of the Muslim "Other" and terrorism on the American landscape. Kellner's analysis of these films' narrative and filmic style illustrate the conflicting impressions of the "war on terror" in Hollywood and with filmmakers who struggled to capture "the truth" of the events while also trying to tell marketable stories.
In the case of United 93 and World Trade Center, Kellner illustrates why these films failed to attract an audience but genre films like War of the Worlds Stephen Spielberg, and Cloverfield Matt Reeves, engaged with the larger issues of terrorism and fear in a format that was identifiable and at the same time enjoyable for audiences.
He closely examines Moore's usage of the documentary and a new form of aesthetics to show how he transformed himself into one of America's leading partisan and radical filmmakers Kellner places Moore in the context of the leftist tradition in making documentaries and then illustrates how his strategies of personal witnessing, exploratory and confrontational quest dramas, and partisan political interventions in conjunction with his persona as a "man of the people" made Moore a leader in American documentary form.
Like other film scholars who have discussed why Hollywood was willing to portray the war on screen as it was occurring, Kellner notes that audiences were not interested in viewing these films. However, as he argues, what makes these films of interest historically and to film scholars is the way in which they illustrate the rapidly shifting nature of film and the exchange of information through blogs, video, and the Internet.
The ability to document the war and share its effects, Kellner argues has impacted American audience's feelings about the reasons for war and the way in which it has been conducted. Feelings that he notes have in turn influenced audience's perceptions of their world and the government and resulted in the development of a more cynical and media-savvy citizen. He not only connects his readings of the films to the politics and culture of the s but also to how "New Media" and the Internet shifted the nature of American political discourse from the mainstream into more "niche" markets.
The book is clearly the product of a left-leaning academic whose political and cultural views impact his interpretations of the films he has chosen to analyze, which may harm the book's overall impact. Also, the book lacks a coherent theoretical framework and instead relies too often on close readings of a select group of films that implicitly support Kellner's overall argument that the Bush-Cheney era and its policies were either embraced or critiqued in Hollywood filmmaking.
Still, this is an important study for film scholars that attempts to provide a cohesive narrative about American film and politics during a decade of fragmentation. Michael J. Shapiro's book Cinematic Geopolitics offers an engaging theoretical, political and historical discussion of how film is enabling a "remapping of the world" through the body and technology. Shaprio draws upon the work of Michel Foucault with his usage of the idea of the "cinematic heterotopia" and Gilles Delueze to show how spaces of violence, change, and coercion have been mapped into filmmaking in an attempt to preclude audiences from challenging the status quo of Western neo-liberal democracy.
Shapiro's reliance on a theoretical framework in conjunction with a deep reading of filmic aesthetics allows him to show the changing nature of the world as a result of the "war on terror" and rapid exchange of information is changing human perception.
For example in his discussion of "violent cartography" he looks at how photographer Tomas Munita's "photo of a soldier" taken in Afghanistan recalls the camera positioning of John Ford's The Searchers In looking at the camera angles used and the play of light and shadow, Shapiro argues that both the film and the photograph visually represent the United States' brutal history of racial genocide and conquest.
Thus the photo becomes more than an indication of the American fight on terrorism; it is emblematic of America's imperial history and racial injustice now perpetuated on a global stage. In Chapter Two, Shapiro looks at how the cinematic representation of "space" influences filmmakers and audiences understanding of the geopolitics on a day-to-day basis.
To illustrate this point, Shapiro closely examines Oliver Stone's controversial film Salvador and looks at how it disrupted American audiences' faith in U. The film, which looks at how the U. In Chapter Four, he examines how Hollywood and global filmmakers have attempted to address the dark underbelly of consumer capitalism: the buying and selling of people and body parts.
This chapter is the strongest in the book, and his reading of Dirty Pretty Things Stephen Frears, looks at how the expansion of consumer capitalism into the third world, and the creation of an entire underclass of people, has benefited those with the money to exploit them as sexual and medical objects.
Shapiro connects the themes of the film to the larger question about the ethics of the "war on terror" and its constant brutalizing of the body politic to ensure security. He argues that, "if we recognize that the tensions between persons as human and persons as citizens are not easily resolved within a state-centric political imaginary" then it is possible to accept the realities of the inequitable nature of humanity in the 21 st century Throughout the rest of the book Shapiro explores the reality of these tensions and how they are manifest in cultural items like films, which makes his book out of the three reviewed here one of the most interesting and offers us future models to consider when analyzing contemporary cinema and television.
These three books illustrate the shifting nature of the relationship between history as a methodological approach and theory. Where Toplin and Kellner rely on a historical approach in combination with formalism, Shapiro focuses his efforts on looking at cinema as more than historical, political, or entertaining.
He views cinema as a representation of the changing nature of the human body in relation to geography, technology, and perception, changes which he argues may lead to the ability of audiences to be more aware of the horrors enacted in the name of democracy. What Cinema Is! ISBN: At the outset of Andrew's work lie the questions and answers posed by the French critic in a number of essays written between the s and s. What motivates the argument is the possibility to gather Bazin's at times ambiguous positions into a solid and coherent 'idea of cinema'.
Around this Andrew develops an inspired and insightful, if perhaps nostalgic, roadmap delineating how cinema should proceed to remain faithful to its origins or to Bazin's original ideas. Andrew associates the foundation of a discourse on cinema and the development of a proper film theory with the French school, a lineage that goes from Bazin to Truffaut and Rohmer and from Daney to Frodon. In more than one way such focus echoes Jean-Luc Godard's remarks in the Histoire s du Cinema Gallimard, at the point where the director develops his own genealogy of art history, a direct line that runs from Diderot to Truffaut: "only the French have written history, they have doubted they were part of a history, they have wanted to know what kind of history it was, their own history within History, History within their own" Godard, , In the introductory pages of his volume, Andrew calls this grounding collection of thoughts "the Cahiers Axiom" 4 : a normative paradigm that separates one conception of cinema from another.
The Cahiers line identifies a cinema that successfully embodies the 'idea of cinema', as opposed to audiovisual entertainment. The expression 'Cahiers Axiom' was coined by Serge Daney to express the fact that "cinema has a fundamental rapport with reality and that the real is not what is represented" 5.
While Daney used it in the s against the emerging 'Cinema du Look' Luc Besson, Jean-Jacques Beneix, Jacques Annaud , Andrew uses this basic distinction against the invasion of computer-generated images and an overconfident digital aesthetics.
Lassitude and obsession for detail seem to go hand in hand with Andrew's argument.
International Journal of Communication
My interests include literature, film, graphic fiction and visual arts from Latin America, particularly Argentina, Chile, and Brazil. Many of my recent projects are related to the broader theme of the relationship between science and the arts, but I have also worked on questions of memory, modernity, capitalism, posthumanism, new materialism, decoloniality and environmental thought in Latin America. The monographs and edited volumes I have published are listed below, and many of them are available on open access via the links given. Crisis and Capitalism in Contemporary Argentine Cinema explores the significant boom in Argentine filmmaking from the mids onwards, with a particular emphasis on how these productions have registered Argentina's experience of capitalism, neo-liberalism, and economic crisis. In different ways, the films selected for discussion testify to the social consequences of growing unemployment, rising crime, marginalization, and the expansion of the informal economy. The book focuses particularly on films associated with New Argentine Cinema, but it also discusses highly experimental films and genre movies borrowing from the conventions of crime thrillers, Westerns, and film noir. The films are brought into dialogue with a broader range of issues in contemporary film criticism, including the role of national and transnational film studies, theories of subjectivity, spectatorship and memory, and the relationship between private and public spheres.
Buy Now. Latin American science fiction, cyberfiction, and representations of science and technology in Latin American literature and cinema are examined from interdisciplinary perspectives in this bold and insightful analysis. Creativity and Science in Argentine Literature adds new understanding to the growing body of interdisciplinary work on the relationship between literature and science in postmodern culture. Joanna Page examines how contemporary fiction and literary theory in Argentina consistently employ theories and models from mathematics and science to probe the nature of innovation and evolution in literature. However, in recent Argentine fiction, these generalizations are put to very different uses: to map out the potential for artistic creativity and regeneration in times of crisis. This book makes a significant contribution to our understanding of how newness and creativity have been theorized, tracing often unexpected relationships between thinkers such as Nietzsche, Deleuze, and the Russian Formalists. Allegories of Reading in an Age of Immanence and Unvertainty Serial polysemia: Crimes of Logic Interpretation and interpretosis in an immanent world Literature: the laboratory of the future.
Genre s : Modern Languages Literary Criticism. Series: Iberian and Latin American Studies. This volume examines Brazilian films released between and , with special attention to issues of race, ethnicity and national identity. This book is an important addition to the growing bibliography on films of the so-called 'retomada' or renaissance of Brazilian cinema that began in the mids, and is essential reading for students and scholars working in this field. It will also appeal to a general readership with an interest in contemporary cinema or Brazilian culture.
Appiolaza, Fausto: Crisis and Capitalism in Contemporary Argentine Cinema - written by Joanna Page, Durham-. London: Duke University Press, In.
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This first in-depth English-language study of Argentine fiction films released since the mids explains how they have registered Argentinas recent experience of capitalism, neoliberalism, and economic crisis. Crisis and Capitalism in Contemporary Argentine Cinema. EN English Deutsch. Your documents are now available to view.
While the study of superheroes has become a comprehensive field in itself, a focus on global superheroes has only recently begun to take shape. Missing from this study, however, is an examination of Argentine superheroes. The present essay fills this gap by addressing two films, Zenitram and Kryptonita , that portray and critique Argentina and its relationship with neoliberalism in the 20th and 21st centuries. Both films move beyond the parameters of genre cinema by engaging salient issues extant in the cultural horizon of the country. Aguilar, G.
Ты займешься Третьим узлом. Сотрешь всю электронную почту Хейла. Все, что относится к его переписке с Танкадо, где упоминается Цифровая крепость. - Хорошо, - сказала Сьюзан, стараясь сосредоточиться, - я сотру весь накопитель Хейла. И все переформатирую. - Нет! - жестко парировал Стратмор. - Не делай .
About the Book
Вспомнив всю услышанную от шефа ложь, она похолодела и посмотрела на него, в глазах ее мелькнуло подозрение. - Это вы убили Танкадо. Стратмор вздрогнул и замотал головой: - Конечно. Убивать Танкадо не было необходимости. Честно говоря, я бы предпочел, чтобы он остался жив. Его смерть бросает на Цифровую крепость тень подозрения.
Домой! - солгала Мидж. Бринкерхофф не уходил с дороги. - Это тебе велел Фонтейн? - спросила. Бринкерхофф отвернулся. - Чед, уверяю тебя, в шифровалке творится что-то непонятное. Не знаю, почему Фонтейн прикидывается идиотом, но ТРАНСТЕКСТ в опасности. Там происходит что-то очень серьезное.
Внезапно он понял, что входит в собор. ГЛАВА 90 В шифровалке завывали сирены. Стратмор не имел представления о том, сколько времени прошло после ухода Сьюзан. Он сидел один в полутьме, и гул ТРАНСТЕКСТА звучал в его ушах. Вы всегда добиваетесь своего… вы добьетесь… Да, - подумал. - Я добиваюсь своих целей, но честь для меня важнее.
Ключ. - В этом и заключается его замысел. Алгоритм есть уже у. Танкадо предлагает ключ, с помощью которого его можно расшифровать.
ME TOO, что означало: Я. Беккер расхохотался. Он дожил до тридцати пяти лет, а сердце у него прыгало, как у влюбленного мальчишки. Никогда еще его не влекло ни к одной женщине. Изящные европейские черты лица и карие глаза делали Сьюзан похожей на модель, рекламирующую косметику Эсте Лаудер.
Машина была оплачена человеком в очках в тонкой металлической оправе, и он должен был его дождаться. Беккер оглянулся и, увидев, как Халохот бежит по залу аэропорта с пистолетом в руке, бросил взгляд на свою стоящую на тротуаре веспу. Я погиб. Халохот вырвался из вращающейся двери в тот момент, когда Беккер попытался завести мотоцикл. Убийца улыбнулся и начал поднимать пистолет.