President And Prime Minister Of All Countries 2015 Pdf
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- Why Singapore works: five secrets of Singapore’s success
- U.S.-India Relations
- U.S.-India Relations
- Why Singapore works: five secrets of Singapore’s success
The purpose of this paper is to explain why Singapore is a success story today despite the fact that its prospects for survival were dim when it became independent in August Quah, J. Published in Public Administration and Policy.
Why Singapore works: five secrets of Singapore’s success
The purpose of this paper is to explain why Singapore is a success story today despite the fact that its prospects for survival were dim when it became independent in August Quah, J. Published in Public Administration and Policy. Published by Emerald Publishing Limited. Anyone may reproduce, distribute, translate and create derivative works of this article for both commercial and non-commercial purposes , subject to full attribution to the original publication and authors.
Naisbitt, , pp. When Singapore was founded by Stamford Raffles in January , it was a small fishing village inhabited by a thousand Malay fishermen and a few Chinese farmers Turnbull, , p. Its transformation from a small fishing village in the early nineteenth century to a modern and prosperous city-state today is an incredible story of from rags to riches.
In his memoirs, Lee wrote: We had been asked to leave Malaysia and go our own way with no signposts to our next destination. We faced tremendous odds with an improbable chance of survival. The lives of Singaporeans have also improved as reflected in the drastic decline in the unemployment rate from 14 per cent to 2. Furthermore, the proportion of the population living in public housing has also increased from 9 per cent in to 82 per cent in Goh, , p. In the same speech, Goh , p. In his memoirs, Lee Kuan Yew , pp.
However good the system of government, bad leaders will bring harm to their people. In addition to his belief in the importance of having good leaders, Lee was also a pragmatic leader.
In November , Lee advised visiting African leaders to adopt a pragmatic approach in formulating economic policy rather than a dogmatic stance. Lee , p. Accordingly, it invited a United Nations mission led by a Dutch economist, Albert Winsemius, to formulate an industrialisation programme for Singapore. The Winsemius team recommended a crash programme to reduce unemployment and a ten-year programme to attract foreign investment to Singapore with appropriate incentives Quah, , p.
How you do it, is your job. Number two is: let [the statue of Stamford] Raffles [who founded Singapore] stand where he stands today; say publicly that you accept the heavy ties with the West because you will very much need them in your economic programme. Singapore succeeded in developing its economy because Lee implemented the sound economic policies recommended by Winsemius.
In his July interview with American journalist, Tom Plate, Lee elaborated on his pragmatic approach to solving problems: I do not work on a theory.
Instead I ask: what will make this work? If, after a series of such solutions, I find that a certain approach worked, then I try to find out what was the principle behind the solution. I choose a solution which offers a higher probability of success, but if it fails, I have some other way. Never a dead end. The public bureaucracy in Singapore consists of 16 ministries and 64 statutory boards Republic of Singapore, and has grown from , to , employees during —, as shown in Table II.
It has attained percentile ranking for these ten years: , , , , , , , , and Thus, it is not surprising that Singapore is ranked first for government effectiveness in as shown in Table IV. A comparative analysis of the role of the public bureaucracy in policy implementation in five ASEAN countries has confirmed that Singapore is the most effective because of its favourable policy context and its effective public bureaucracy. Conversely, Indonesia is the least effective because of its unfavourable policy context and its ineffective public bureaucracy.
Malaysia, Vietnam and the Philippines occupy intermediate positions between Singapore and Indonesia and are ranked second, third and fourth, respectively, depending on the nature of their policy contexts and the levels of effectiveness of their public bureaucracies Quah, a , p. Lee, , p. The problem of corruption deteriorated during the Japanese Occupation February to August as civil servants could not survive on their low wages because of the high inflation rate and the scarcity of food and other commodities forced many people to trade in the black market.
As conditions did not improve during the post-war period, corruption was rampant among civil servants because their low salaries, high inflation and inadequate supervision by their superiors provided them with ample opportunities for corruption with a low probability of being caught Quah, , pp. After assuming office in June , Lee Kuan Yew explained in his memoirs why he and his colleagues were determined to keep Singapore free from corruption: We were sickened by the greed, corruption and decadence of many Asian leaders.
When we took the oath of office […] in June , we all wore white shirts and white slacks to symbolise purity and honesty in our personal behaviour and our public life. So from the very beginning we gave special attention to the areas where discretionary powers had been exploited for personal gain and sharpened the instruments that could prevent, detect or deter such practices.
Lee, , pp. As corruption was endemic in Singapore when the PAP leaders assumed office, they learned from the mistakes made by the British colonial government in curbing corruption and showed their political will by enacting the POCA on 17 June to replace the ineffective Prevention of Corruption Ordinance POCO and to strengthen the CPIB by providing it with more legal powers, personnel and funding. However, it made a second mistake by not providing the CPIB with adequate legal powers, budget and personnel to perform its functions effectively.
The same processes and procedures apply to everyone being investigated, including ministers and chief executive officers of major companies. In July , the CPIB created a Computer Forensics Unit to improve the investigative and evidence-gathering skills of its officers by providing them with the knowledge of forensic accounting to enable them to trace ill-gotten assets and retrieve incriminating evidence from seized computers and mobile telephones.
The CPIB has also conducted joint operations with the Commercial Affairs Department and the Immigration and Checkpoints Authority to develop networks and partnerships with other public agencies in Singapore Soh, , pp. He was investigated and interrogated by CPIB officers but he committed suicide one month later before he could be charged in court. He was found guilty of criminal breach of trust and forgery and sentenced to ten years imprisonment on 20 February Quah, a , pp.
If we underpay men of quality as ministers, we cannot expect them to stay long in office earning a fraction of what they could outside. Education is the key to the long-term future of the population in Singapore which has no natural resources.
Consequently, the enrolment in all educational institutions in Singapore has grown from , students in to , students in , and the literacy rate has also improved from In , the Third International Mathematics and Science Study TIMSS , which compared the scores of year-olds in mathematics and science tests in 41 countries, ranked Singapore first in both subjects with scores of and , respectively, which were significantly higher than the international average score of Economist, , p.
In , the Harvey Report on public sector salaries recommended salary increases for senior civil servants in the Superscale Grades C to G. The government did not accept this recommendation because it could not afford a major salary revision and the private sector was not viewed as a serious competitor for talented personnel Quah, b , p.
In February , the National Wages Council was established to advise the government on wage polices and, one month later, it recommended that all public sector employees be paid a 13th-month non-pensionable allowance comparable to the bonus in the private sector.
The salaries of senior civil servants were increased substantially in and to reduce the gap with the private sector. A survey of 30, graduates in Singapore conducted by the Internal Revenue Department found that graduates in the private sector jobs earned, on the average, 42 per cent more than their counterparts working in the public sector. Consequently, it was not surprising that eight superscale and 67 timescale administrative officers had resigned from the civil service for better-paid private sector jobs.
The government responded by revising the salaries of senior civil servants in , , and to reduce the gap with private sector salaries and to minimise their outflow to the private sector Quah, , pp. On 17 March , Lee Hsien Loong, the Minister for Trade and Industry, recommended a hefty salary increase for senior civil servants because the low salaries and slow promotion in the Administrative Service had contributed to its low recruitment and high resignation rates.
In December , the Public Service Division PSD announced that the salaries of ministers and senior civil servants would be increased from 4 to 21 per cent from January On 24 November , the PSD indicated that their salaries would be decreased by 19 per cent in because of the economic recession. However, the economy recovered in and the salaries of ministers and senior civil servants were revised upwards. Even though the PAP won 81 of the 87 parliamentary seats in the May general election, the percentage of votes captured declined to The Committee submitted its report to Prime Minister Lee on 30 December and the government accepted all its recommendations and implemented the revised salaries from 21 May Republic of Singapore, , pp.
Edgar Schein , pp. The object of looking abroad is not to copy but to learn under what circumstances and to what extent programmes effective elsewhere may also work here. Moreover, the failures of other governments offer lessons about what not to do at far less political cost than making the same mistakes yourself. Rose, , p. An important strength of the PAP government is its willingness to learn from the experiences of other countries by not repeating the mistakes they have made in solving their problems.
During the early years after independence, Singapore looked towards such small nations as Israel and Switzerland as role models for inspiration to formulate relevant public policies for defence and other areas.
Later, other countries like West Germany for technical education , the Netherlands Changi Airport was modelled after Schiphol Airport and Japan for quality control circles and crime prevention were added to the list.
As a young nation, Singapore has learnt from other countries by avoiding similar mistakes in solving their problems. In June , Goh Keng Swee, the Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Defence, rejected the adoption of welfare state policies in Singapore because of these negative consequences: But nothing is for free in this world and the end result of indiscriminate welfare state policies is bankruptcy. The money to pay for welfare state expenditure must come either from taxes or from the printing press.
Increasing taxes, which mainly affects the rich, reduces the amount of money available for investment, thereby slowing down economic growth. Printing paper money to avoid unpleasant tax increases merely results in more inflation.
In short, policy diffusion remains an asset for Singapore so long as there is intelligent sifting of relevant policy ideas and solutions tested elsewhere by the policy makers without blind acceptance and wholesale transplantation of foreign innovations without modification to suit the local context. Quah, , p. First, they must recognise the significant contextual differences between Singapore, which is an affluent, politically stable city-state with a small land area and population, and their countries, which have lower GDP per capita and larger territories and populations.
Indeed, the contextual differences would make it difficult for larger countries like China and India with huge populations to adopt in toto Singapore-style solutions to their problems.
But I have the whole of China! Instead careful attention must be directed to the wider policy contexts involved as well as to the feasibility of policy transfer. There are questions of soil type, rainfall, and sunlight just as there are questions of government capacity, efficiency and integrity. China is ranked 77th among countries with a score of 41 on the CPI in Transparency International, , p. As China is a communist state with political power monopolised by the CCP, it is unrealistic to expect the CCP to introduce the necessary reforms to enhance the effectiveness of its anti-corruption strategy by establishing a single independent ACA like the CPIB and provide it with the required personnel and budget to enforce the anti-corruption laws impartially against corrupt offenders, regardless of their status, position or political affiliation and to avoid using corruption as a weapon against political foes Quah, b , p.
In short, do policy makers elsewhere have the political will to pay the high political and economic costs of implementing Singapore-style policy reforms in their countries? It was simply hard-headed policy. But what happened in Singapore was not a miracle. It was policy. However, when Singapore faces problems which other countries cannot solve, the PAP leaders initiate innovative solutions to solve these problems.
As the British colonial government failed to solve the serious housing shortage and widespread corruption, the PAP government initiated innovative solutions to tackle these two problems after assuming office in June Quah, , p.
In February , the Housing and Development Board HDB was established as a statutory board to solve the housing shortage by providing low-cost public housing for Singaporeans. Thus, housing and corruption are no longer serious problems in Singapore today because of the effective and innovative strategies adopted by the HDB and CPIB, respectively, to solve these problems.
Notes: a figure; b figure; c Singapore was ranked seventh among countries on the CPI in with a score of 84 Transparency International, Sources: Department of Statistics , pp. Source: Department of Statistics , p.
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Why Singapore works: five secrets of Singapore’s success
Но Беккера там не оказалось, и он тихо застонал от злости. Беккер, спотыкаясь и кидаясь то вправо, то влево, продирался сквозь толпу. Надо идти за ними, думал. Они знают, как отсюда выбраться.
Джабба тяжко вздохнул. Он знал, что Фонтейн прав: у них нет иного выбора. Время на исходе. Джабба сел за монитор. - Хорошо. Давайте попробуем. - Он потянулся к клавиатуре.
Внутри не было никакого лирджета. Он несколько раз моргнул затуманенными глазами, надеясь, что это лишь галлюцинация. Увы, ангар был пуст. О Боже. Где же самолет. Мотоцикл и такси с грохотом въехали в пустой ангар.
Стратмор - человек гордый и властный, наблюдение за ним следует организовать так, чтобы никоим образом не подорвать его авторитета. Из уважения к Стратмору Фонтейн решил заняться этим лично. Он распорядился установить жучок в личном компьютере Стратмора - чтобы контролировать его электронную почту, его внутриведомственную переписку, а также мозговые штурмы, которые тот время от времени предпринимал. Если Стратмор окажется на грани срыва, директор заметит первые симптомы. Но вместо признаков срыва Фонтейн обнаружил подготовительную работу над беспрецедентной разведывательной операцией, которую только можно было себе представить. Неудивительно, что Стратмор просиживает штаны на работе.
Выли сирены. Как весенний лед на реке, потрескивал корпус ТРАНСТЕКСТА. - Я спущусь вниз и отключу электропитание, - сказал Стратмор, положив руку на плечо Сьюзан и стараясь ее успокоить. - И сразу же вернусь. Сьюзан безучастно смотрела, как он направился в шифровалку. Это был уже не тот раздавленный отчаянием человек, каким она видела его десять минут. Коммандер Тревор Стратмор снова стал самим собой - человеком железной логики и самообладания, делающим то, что полагалось делать.
В последние несколько лет наша работа здесь, в агентстве, становилась все более трудной. Мы столкнулись с врагами, которые, как мне казалось, никогда не посмеют бросить нам вызов. Я говорю о наших собственных гражданах.
Мотоцикл, виляя, мчался по газону и, обогнув угол здания, выехал на шоссе. Халохот, кипя от злости, побежал к такси.