Climate Change And Vector Borne Diseases Ppt To Pdf
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- Vector-Borne Diseases
- Possible impact of rising sea levels on vector-borne infectious diseases
- Guide for Authors
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Mosquito-borne diseases or mosquito-borne illnesses are diseases caused by bacteria, viruses or parasites transmitted by mosquitoes. Nearly million people get a mosquito-borne illness each year resulting in over one million deaths. Diseases transmitted by mosquitoes include malaria , dengue , West Nile virus , chikungunya , yellow fever ,  filariasis , tularemia , dirofilariasis , Japanese encephalitis , Saint Louis encephalitis , Western equine encephalitis , Eastern equine encephalitis ,  Venezuelan equine encephalitis , Ross River fever , Barmah Forest fever , La Crosse encephalitis , and Zika fever ,  as well as newly detected Keystone virus and Rift Valley fever.
There is no evidence as of April that COVID can be transmitted by mosquitoes, and it is extremely unlikely this could occur. The female mosquito of the genus Anopheles may carry the malaria parasite. Four different species of protozoa cause malaria: Plasmodium falciparum , Plasmodium malariae , Plasmodium ovale and Plasmodium vivax  see Plasmodium. Worldwide, malaria is a leading cause of premature mortality, particularly in children under the age of five, with an estimated million cases and more than half a million deaths in , according to the World Malaria Report published by WHO.
The death toll increased to one million as of according to the American Mosquito Control Association. Botflies are known to parasitize humans or other mammalians, causing myiasis , and to use mosquitoes as intermediate vector agents to deposit eggs on a host. The human botfly Dermatobia hominis attaches its eggs to the underside of a mosquito, and when the mosquito takes a blood meal from a human or an animal, the body heat of the mammalian host induces hatching of the larvae.
Some species of mosquito can carry the filariasis worm, a parasite that causes a disfiguring condition often referred to as elephantiasis characterized by a great swelling of several parts of the body; worldwide, around 40 million people are living with a filariasis disability.
The viral diseases yellow fever , dengue fever , Zika fever and chikungunya are transmitted mostly by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Louis encephalitis , West Nile fever , Japanese encephalitis , La Crosse encephalitis and several other encephalitic diseases are carried by several different mosquitoes. Symptoms range from mild flu-like illness to encephalitis, coma and death.
Viruses carried by arthropods such as mosquitoes or ticks are known collectively as arboviruses. West Nile virus was accidentally introduced into the United States in and by had spread to almost every state with over 3, cases in Other species of Aedes as well as Culex and Culiseta are also involved in the transmission of disease.
Myxomatosis is spread by biting insects, including mosquitoes. A mosquito's period of feeding is often undetected; the bite only becomes apparent because of the immune reaction it provokes. When a mosquito bites a human, it injects saliva and anti-coagulants. For any given individual, with the initial bite there is no reaction but with subsequent bites the body's immune system develops antibodies and a bite becomes inflamed and itchy within 24 hours.
This is the usual reaction in young children. With more bites, the sensitivity of the human immune system increases, and an itchy red hive appears in minutes where the immune response has broken capillary blood vessels and fluid has collected under the skin. This type of reaction is common in older children and adults. Some adults can become desensitized to mosquitoes and have little or no reaction to their bites, while others can become hyper-sensitive with bites causing blistering, bruising, and large inflammatory reactions, a response known as skeeter syndrome.
Symptoms of illness are specific to the type of viral infection and vary in severity, based on the individuals infected. Symptoms vary in severity, from mild unnoticeable symptoms to more common symptoms like fever, rash, headache, achy muscle and joints, and conjunctivitis. Symptoms can last several days to weeks, but death resulting from this infection is rare. Most people infected with the West Nile virus usually do not develop symptoms.
However, some individuals can develop cases of severe fatigue, weakness, headaches, body aches, joint and muscle pain, vomiting, diarrhea, and rash, which can last for weeks or months. More serious symptoms have a greater risk of appearing in people over 60 years of age, or those suffering from cancer, diabetes, hypertension, and kidney disease. Dengue fever is mostly characterized by high fever, headaches, joint pain, and rash.
However, more severe instances can lead to hemorrhagic fever, internal bleeding, and breathing difficulty, which can be fatal. People infected with this virus can develop sudden onset fever along with debilitating joint and muscle pain, rash, headache, nausea, and fatigue.
Symptoms can last a few days or be prolonged to weeks and months. Although patients can recover completely, there have been cases in which joint pain has persisted for several months and can extend beyond that for years.
Other people can develop heart complications, eye problems, and even neurological complications. Mosquitoes carrying such arboviruses stay healthy because their immune systems recognizes the virions as foreign particles and "chop off" the virus' genetic coding, rendering it inert.
Human infection with a mosquito-borne virus occurs when a female mosquito bites someone while its immune system is still in the process of destroying the virus's harmful coding. Data has shown that the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum alters the mosquito vector's feeding behavior by increasing frequency of biting in infected mosquitoes, thus increasing the chance of transmitting the parasite.
The mechanism of transmission of this disease starts with the injection of the parasite into the victim's blood when malaria-infected female Anopheles mosquitoes bite into a human being. The parasite uses human liver cells as hosts for maturation where it will continue to replicate and grow, moving into other areas of the body via the bloodstream.
The spread of this infection cycle then continues when other mosquitoes bite the same victim. The result will cause that mosquito to ingest the parasite and allow it to transmit the Malaria disease into another person through the same mode of bite injection. Flaviviridae viruses transmissible via vectors like mosquitoes include West Nile virus and yellow fever virus, which are single stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses enveloped in a protein coat. Once inside the host's body, the virus will attach itself to a cell's surface through receptor-mediated endocytosis.
This essentially means that the proteins and DNA material of the virus are ingested into the host cell. The viral RNA material will undergo several changes and processes inside the host's cell so that it can release more viral RNA that can then be replicated and assembled to infect neighboring host cells. Currently, there are no specific vaccine therapies for West Nile virus approved for humans; however, vaccines are available and some show promise for animals, as a means to intervene with the mechanism of spreading such pathogens.
Doctors can typically identify a mosquito bite by sight. A doctor will perform a physical examination and ask about medical history as well as any travel history. Diagnosing dengue fever can be difficult, as its symptoms often overlap with many other diseases such as malaria and typhoid fever. A lumbar puncture spinal tap is the most common way to diagnose meningitis, by analyzing the cerebrospinal fluid surrounding your brain and spinal cord.
A Zika virus infection might be suspected if symptoms are present and an individual has traveled to an area with known Zika virus transmission. Laboratory blood tests can identify evidence of chikungunya or other similar viruses such as dengue and Zika. IgM antibodies are highest 3 to 5 weeks after the beginning of symptoms and will continue be present for about 2 months. There is a re-emergence of mosquito vectored viruses arthropod-borne viruses called arboviruses carried by the Aedes aegypti mosquito.
Examples are the Zika virus, chikungunya virus, yellow fever and dengue fever. The re-emergence of the viruses has been at a faster rate, and over a wider geographic area, than in the past. The rapid re-emergence is due to expanding global transportation networks, the mosquito's increasing ability to adapt to urban settings, the disruption of traditional land use and the inability to control expanding mosquito populations.
The only exception is yellow fever. Prevention is focused on reducing the adult mosquito populations, controlling mosquito larvae and protecting individuals from mosquito bites. Depending on the mosquito vector, and the affected community, a variety of prevention methods may be deployed at one time. The use of insecticide treated mosquito nets ITNs are at the forefront of preventing mosquito bites that cause malaria. Because the Anopheles gambiae feeds indoors endophagic and rests indoors after feeding endophilic , insecticide treated nets ITNs interrupt the mosquito's feeding pattern.
The ITNs continue to offer protection, even after there are holes in the nets, because of their excito-repellency properties which reduce the number of mosquitoes that enter the home. There is an emerging concern of mosquito resistance to insecticides used in ITNs. Twenty-seven 27 sub-Saharan African countries have reported Anopheles vector resistance to pyrethroid insecticides.
Indoor spraying of insecticides is another prevention method widely used to control mosquito vectors. To help control the Aedes aegypti mosquito, homes are sprayed indoors with residual insecticide applications. Indoor residual spraying IRS reduces the female mosquito population and mitigates the risk of dengue virus transmission.
Indoor residual spraying is completed usually once or twice a year. Mosquitoes rest on walls and ceilings after feeding and are killed by the insecticide. Indoor spraying can be combined with spraying the exterior of the building to help reduce the number of mosquito larvae and subsequently, the number of adult mosquitoes.
There are other methods that an individual can use to protect themselves from mosquito bites. Limiting exposure to mosquitoes from dusk to dawn when the majority of mosquitoes are active and wearing long sleeves and long pants during the period mosquitoes are most active.
Placing screens on windows and doors is a simple and effective means of reducing the number of mosquitoes indoors. Anticipating mosquito contact and using a topical mosquito repellant with DEET or icaridin is also recommended. Draining or covering water receptacles, both indoor and outdoors, is also a simple but effective prevention method.
Removing debris and tires, cleaning drains, and cleaning gutters help larval control and reduce the number of adult mosquitoes. There is a vaccine for yellow fever which was developed in the s, the yellow 17D vaccine , and it is still in use today.
The initial yellow fever vaccination provides lifelong protection for most people and provides immunity within 30 days of the vaccine. Reactions to the yellow fever vaccine have included mild headache and fever, and muscle aches. There are rare cases of individuals presenting with symptoms that mirror the disease itself.
The risk of complications from the vaccine are greater for individuals over 60 years of age. To date, there are relatively few vaccines against mosquito-borne diseases. The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease NIAID began Phase 1 clinical trials of a new vaccine that would be nearly universal in protecting against the majority of mosquito-borne diseases. The arboviruses have expanded their geographic range and infected populations that had no recent community knowledge of the diseases carried by the Aedes aegypti mosquito.
Education and community awareness campaigns are necessary for prevention to be effective. Communities are educated on how the disease is spread, how they can protect themselves from infection and the symptoms of infection. Community outreach and education programs can identify which preventative measures a community is most likely to employ. Leading to a targeted prevention method that has a higher chance of success in that particular community. Community outreach and education includes engaging community health workers and local healthcare providers, local schools and community organizations to educate the public on mosquito vector control and disease prevention.
Numerous drugs have been used to treat yellow fever disease with minimal satisfaction to date. Patients with multisystem organ involvement will require critical care support such as possible hemodialysis or mechanical ventilation. Rest, fluids, and acetaminophen are also known to relieve milder symptoms of fever and muscle pain. Due to hemorrhagic complications, aspirin should be avoided. Infected individuals should avoid mosquito exposure by staying indoors or using a mosquito net.
Dengue infection's therapeutic management is simple, cost effective and successful in saving lives by adequately performing timely institutionalized interventions.
Possible impact of rising sea levels on vector-borne infectious diseases
Metrics details. Vector-borne infectious diseases are a significant cause of human and animal mortality and morbidity. Modeling studies predict that changes in climate that accompany global warming will alter the transmission risk of many vector-borne infectious diseases in different parts of the world. Global warming will also raise sea levels, which will lead to an increase in saline and brackish water bodies in coastal areas. The potential impact of rising sea levels, as opposed to climate change, on the prevalence of vector-borne infectious diseases has hitherto been unrecognised.
Climate change is expected to alter the geographic and seasonal distributions of existing vectors and vector-borne diseases [Likely, High Confidence]. Ticks capable of carrying the bacteria that cause Lyme disease and other pathogens will show earlier seasonal activity and a generally northward expansion in response to increasing temperatures associated with climate change [Likely, High Confidence]. Longer seasonal activity and expanding geographic range of these ticks will increase the risk of human exposure to ticks [Likely, Medium Confidence]. Rising temperatures, changing precipitation patterns, and a higher frequency of some extreme weather events associated with climate change will influence the distribution, abundance, and prevalence of infection in the mosquitoes that transmit West Nile virus and other pathogens by altering habitat availability and mosquito and viral reproduction rates [Very Likely, High Confidence]. Alterations in the distribution, abundance, and infection rate of mosquitoes will influence human exposure to bites from infected mosquitoes, which is expected to alter risk for human disease [Very Likely, Medium Confidence]. Vector-borne pathogens are expected to emerge or reemerge due to the interactions of climate factors with many other drivers, such as changing land-use patterns [Likely, High Confidence]. The impacts to human disease, however, will be limited by the adaptive capacity of human populations, such as vector control practices or personal protective measures [Likely, High Confidence].
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Temperature. • Warm spring temperatures prompt early season mosquito activity and a longer virus amplification period. • Hot temperatures = increased WNV.
Guide for Authors
If your institution subscribes to this resource, and you don't have a MyAccess Profile, please contact your library's reference desk for information on how to gain access to this resource from off-campus. Please consult the latest official manual style if you have any questions regarding the format accuracy. This new climate has already altered the epidemiology of some infectious diseases.
Mosquito-borne diseases or mosquito-borne illnesses are diseases caused by bacteria, viruses or parasites transmitted by mosquitoes. Nearly million people get a mosquito-borne illness each year resulting in over one million deaths. Diseases transmitted by mosquitoes include malaria , dengue , West Nile virus , chikungunya , yellow fever ,  filariasis , tularemia , dirofilariasis , Japanese encephalitis , Saint Louis encephalitis , Western equine encephalitis , Eastern equine encephalitis ,  Venezuelan equine encephalitis , Ross River fever , Barmah Forest fever , La Crosse encephalitis , and Zika fever ,  as well as newly detected Keystone virus and Rift Valley fever. There is no evidence as of April that COVID can be transmitted by mosquitoes, and it is extremely unlikely this could occur. The female mosquito of the genus Anopheles may carry the malaria parasite.
Бринкерхофф взял первую распечатку. ШИФРОВАЛКА - ПРОИЗВОДИТЕЛЬНОСТЬРАСХОДЫ Настроение его сразу же улучшилось. Мидж оказала ему настоящую услугу: обработка отчета шифровалки, как правило, не представляла собой никаких трудностей. Конечно, он должен был проверить все показатели, но единственная цифра, которая по-настоящему всегда интересовала директора, - это СЦР, средняя цена одной расшифровки. Иными словами, СЦР представляла собой оценочную стоимость вскрытия ТРАНСТЕКСТОМ одного шифра. Если цена не превышала тысячи долларов, Фонтейн никак не реагировал.
По сути, это был самый настоящий шантаж. Он предоставил АНБ выбор: либо рассказать миру о ТРАНСТЕКСТЕ, либо лишиться главного банка данных. Сьюзан в ужасе смотрела на экран. Внизу угрожающе мигала команда: ВВЕДИТЕ КЛЮЧ Вглядываясь в пульсирующую надпись, она поняла. Вирус, ключ, кольцо Танкадо, изощренный шантаж… Этот ключ не имеет к алгоритму никакого отношения, это противоядие. Ключ блокирует вирус. Она много читала о таких вирусах - смертоносных программах, в которые встроено излечение, секретный ключ, способный дезактивировать вирус.
- Нет. Хейл сжал ее горло. - Если вы вызовете службу безопасности, она умрет. Стратмор вытащил из-под ремня мобильник и набрал номер. - Ты блефуешь, Грег. - Вы этого не сделаете! - крикнул Хейл.
Испания не славится эффективностью бюрократического аппарата, и Беккер понял, что ему придется простоять здесь всю ночь, чтобы получить информацию о канадце.
Причиной этого стала любовь, но не. Еще и собственная глупость. Он отдал Сьюзан свой пиджак, а вместе с ним - Скайпейджер.
Молодые люди поднялись по ступенькам, и двигатель автобуса снова взревел. Беккер вдруг понял, что непроизвольно рванулся вперед, перед его глазами маячил только один образ - черная помада на губах, жуткие тени под глазами и эти волосы… заплетенные в три торчащие в разные стороны косички. Красную, белую и синюю. Автобус тронулся, а Беккер бежал за ним в черном облаке окиси углерода. - Espera! - крикнул он ему вдогонку.
Хорошо, хорошо. - Мидж вздохнула.
- Хорошо, теперь давайте. Дверь снова приоткрылась на дюйм. В Третьем узле виднелось голубоватое сияние: терминалы по-прежнему работали; они обеспечивали функционирование ТРАНСТЕКСТА, поэтому на них поступало аварийное питание. Сьюзан просунула в щель ногу в туфле Феррагамо и усилила нажим.
Некоторые ваши туристические путеводители старательно скрывают правду, обещая бесплатный ночлег в городе, но Монреаль тайме не продается. Ни за какие деньги. - Простите, сэр, вы, кажется, меня не… - Merde alors.
Но мы с мисс Флетчер проводим диагностику особого рода. Это файл высочайшей сложности. Я должен был тебя предупредить, но не знал, что сегодня твое дежурство.
- Он, казалось, все еще продолжал сомневаться в том, что Хейл оказался вовлечен в планы Танкадо. - Я полагаю, Хейл держит этот пароль, глубоко запрятав его в компьютере, а дома, возможно, хранит копию. Так или иначе, он попал в западню.
Меган! - завопил он, грохнувшись на пол. Острые раскаленные иглы впились в глазницы. Он уже ничего не видел и только чувствовал, как тошнотворный комок подкатил к горлу.