Parts Of Doors And Windows Pdf

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A door is a hinged or otherwise movable barrier that allows ingress into and egress from an enclosure. The created opening in the wall is a doorway or portal.

The frame is usually made of timber due to its easy availability and that it can be made into any shape. The frames are fixed into the walls by 'holdfasts', which are concrete block with iron clips or steel running through them.

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A door is a hinged or otherwise movable barrier that allows ingress into and egress from an enclosure. The created opening in the wall is a doorway or portal. A door's essential and primary purpose is to provide security by controlling access to the doorway portal. Conventionally , it is a panel that fits into the portal of a building , room , or vehicle.

Doors are generally made of a material suited to the door's task. Doors are commonly attached by hinges, but can move by other means, such as slides or counterbalancing. The door may be moved in various ways at angles away from the portal, by sliding on a plane parallel to the frame, by folding in angles on a parallel plane, or by spinning along an axis at the center of the frame to allow or prevent ingress or egress.

In most cases, a door's interior matches its exterior side. But in other cases e. Doors may incorporate locking mechanisms to ensure that only some people can open them.

Doors may have devices such as knockers or doorbells by which people outside announce their presence. Apart from providing access into and out of a space, doors may have the secondary functions of ensuring privacy by preventing unwanted attention from outsiders, of separating areas with different functions, of allowing light to pass into and out of a space, of controlling ventilation or air drafts so that interiors may be more effectively heated or cooled, of dampening noise , and of blocking the spread of fire.

Doors may have aesthetic , symbolic , ritualistic purposes. Receiving the key to a door can signify a change in status from outsider to insider.

The earliest recorded doors appear in the paintings of Egyptian tombs, which show them as single or double doors, each of a single piece of wood. People may have believed these were doors to the afterlife, and some include designs of the afterlife.

In Egypt, where the climate is intensely dry, doors weren't framed against warping, but in other countries required framed doors—which, according to Vitruvius iv. The stiles were the vertical boards, one of which, tenoned or hinged , is known as the hanging stile, the other as the middle or meeting stile.

The horizontal cross pieces are the top rail, bottom rail, and middle or intermediate rails. The most ancient doors were made of timber, such as those referred to in the Biblical depiction of King Solomon's temple being in olive wood I Kings vi.

The doors that Homer mentions appear to have been cased in silver or brass. Besides olive wood, elm , cedar , oak and cypress were used. A 5,year-old door has been found by archaeologists in Switzerland. Ancient doors were hung by pivots at the top and bottom of the hanging stile, which worked in sockets in the lintel and sill , the latter in some hard stone such as basalt or granite.

Those Hilprecht found at Nippur , dating from BC, were in dolerite. The tenons of the gates at Balawat were sheathed with bronze now in the British Museum. These doors or gates were hung in two leaves, each about 2.

The wood doors would seem to have been about 7. Other sheathings of various sizes in bronze show this was a universal method adopted to protect the wood pivots. In the Hauran in Syria where timber is scarce, the doors were made of stone, and one measuring 1. At Kuffeir near Bostra in Syria, Burckhardt found stone doors, 2. In Etruria many stone doors are referred to by Dennis.

Ancient Greek and Roman doors were either single doors, double doors, triple doors, sliding doors or folding doors , in the last case the leaves were hinged and folded back. In the tomb of Theron at Agrigentum there is a single four-panel door carved in stone. In the Blundell collection is a bas-relief of a temple with double doors, each leaf with five panels. Among existing examples, the bronze doors in the church of SS. Cosmas and Damiano , in Rome, are important examples of Roman metal work of the best period; they are in two leaves, each with two panels, and are framed in bronze.

Those of the Pantheon are similar in design, with narrow horizontal panels in addition, at the top, bottom and middle. Two other bronze doors of the Roman period are in the Lateran Basilica. Copper and its alloys were integral in medieval architecture.

The doors of the church of the Nativity at Bethlehem 6th century are covered with plates of bronze, cut out in patterns. Those of Hagia Sophia at Constantinople , of the 8th and 9th century, are wrought in bronze, and the west doors of the cathedral of Aix-la-Chapelle 9th century , of similar manufacture, were probably brought from Constantinople, as also some of those in St.

Marks, Venice. Bronze baptistery doors at the Cathedral of Florence were completed in by Ghiberti. Of the 11th and 12th centuries there are numerous examples of bronze doors, the earliest being one at Hildesheim , Germany The Hildesheim design affected the concept of Gniezno door in Poland.

In all these cases the hanging stile had pivots at the top and bottom. The exact period when builder moved to the hinge is unknown, but the change apparently brought about another method of strengthening and decorating doors—wrought-iron bands of various designs. As a rule, three bands with ornamental work constitute the hinges, with rings outside the hanging stiles that fit on vertical tenons set into the masonry or wooden frame.

There is an early example of the 12th century in Lincoln. In France, the metal work of the doors of Notre Dame at Paris is a beautiful example, but many others exist throughout France and England. In Italy, celebrated doors include those of the Battistero di San Giovanni Florence , which are all in bronze—including the door frames.

The modeling of the figures, birds and foliage of the south doorway, by Andrea Pisano , and of the east doorway by Ghiberti — , are of great beauty. In the north door — , Ghiberti adopted the same scheme of design for the paneling and figure subjects as Andrea Pisano, but in the east door, the rectangular panels are all filled, with bas-reliefs that illustrate Scripture subjects and innumerable figures.

These may the gates of Paradise of which Michelangelo speaks. Doors of the mosques in Cairo were of two kinds: those externally cased with sheets of bronze or iron, cut in decorative patterns, and incised or inlaid, with bosses in relief; and those of wood framed with interlaced square and diamond designs. The latter design is Coptic in origin. The doors of the palace at Palermo , which were made by Saracenic workmen for the Normans , are fine examples in good preservation. A somewhat similar decorative class of door is found in Verona , where the edges of the stiles and rails are beveled and notched.

In the Renaissance period, Italian doors are quite simple, their architects trusting more to the doorways for effect; but in France and Germany the contrary is the case, the doors being elaborately carved, especially in the Louis XIV and Louis XV periods, and sometimes with architectural features such as columns and entablatures with pediment and niches, the doorway being in plain masonry.

While in Italy the tendency was to give scale by increasing the number of panels, in France the contrary seems to have been the rule; and one of the great doors at Fontainebleau , which is in two leaves, is entirely carried out as if consisting of one great panel only. The earliest Renaissance doors in France are those of the cathedral of St.

Sauveur at Aix The south door of Beauvais Cathedral is in some respects the finest in France; the upper panels are carved in high relief with figure subjects and canopies over them. The doors of the church at Gisors are carved with figures in niches subdivided by classic pilasters superimposed.

In St. Maclou at Rouen are three magnificently carved doors; those by Jean Goujon have figures in niches on each side, and others in a group of great beauty in the center. The other doors, probably about forty to fifty years later, are enriched with bas-reliefs , landscapes, figures and elaborate interlaced borders.

The Vehicle Assembly Building was originally built for the assembly of the Apollo missions' Saturn vehicles and was then used to support Space Shuttle operations. Each of the four doors are meters feet high. The oldest door in England can be found in Westminster Abbey and dates from There are many kinds of doors, with different purposes.

The most common type is the single-leaf door , which consists of a single rigid panel that fills the doorway. There are many variations on this basic design, such as the double-leaf door or double door and French windows , which have two adjacent independent panels hinged on each side of the doorway. John Lateran Rome. An Islamic door decorated with geometric patterns , in Morocco.

Door of the Laboratorium voor Artsenijbereidkunde, an example of Dutch Renaissance architecture , in Amsterdam the Netherlands. Baroque entrance in Vienna Austria. Neoclassical door of the main entrance of the Palace of Justice Brussels , Belgium.

Egyptian Revival door from Saint Petersburg Russia. Double door of a city-house from Bucharest Romania. Art Nouveau metal and glass door in Nancy France , with a big transparent awning above it. A decorated door from the Gandantegchinlen Monastery Mongolia. Art Nouveau doorcase by Charles Rennie Mackintosh , Glasgow Scotland.

Most doors are hinged along one side to allow the door to pivot away from the doorway in one direction, but not the other. The axis of rotation is usually vertical. In some cases, such as hinged garage doors , the axis may be horizontal, above the door opening.

Doors can be hinged so that the axis of rotation is not in the plane of the door to reduce the space required on the side to which the door opens. This requires a mechanism so that the axis of rotation is on the side other than that in which the door opens. This is sometimes the case in trains or airplanes, such as for the door to the toilet, which opens inward. A swing door has special single-action hinges that allow it to open either outwards or inwards, and is usually sprung to keep it closed.

French doors are derived from an original French design called the casement door. It is a door with lites where all or some panels would be in a casement door. A French door traditionally has a moulded panel at the bottom of the door. It is called a French window when used in a pair as double-leaved doors with large glass panels in each door leaf, and in which the doors may swing out typically as well as in.

A Mead door , developed by S Mead of Leicester, swings both ways. It is susceptible to forced entry due to its design. A Dutch door or stable door consists of two halves.


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Молодой лейтенант пустил туда Беккера по распоряжению севильской гвардии - похоже, у этого приезжего американца имелись влиятельные друзья. Беккер осмотрел одежду. Среди вещей были паспорт, бумажник и очки, засунутые кем-то в один из ботинков.

Она бросилась к лестнице и начала подниматься к кабинету Стратмора. За ее спиной ТРАНСТЕКСТ издал предсмертный оглушающий стон. Когда распался последний силиконовый чип, громадная раскаленная лава вырвалась наружу, пробив верхнюю крышку и выбросив на двадцать метров вверх тучу керамических осколков, и в то же мгновение насыщенный кислородом воздух шифровалки втянуло в образовавшийся вакуум. Сьюзан едва успела взбежать на верхнюю площадку лестницы и вцепиться в перила, когда ее ударил мощный порыв горячего ветра. Повернувшись, она увидела заместителя оперативного директора АНБ; он стоял возле ТРАНСТЕКСТА, не сводя с нее глаз.

Слушая сообщение, он выпил почти целый пакет апельсинового сока. Послание ничем не отличалось от многих других, которые он получал: правительственное учреждение просит его поработать переводчиком в течение нескольких часов сегодня утром. Странным показалось только одно: об этой организации Беккер никогда прежде не слышал. Беккер позвонил одному из своих коллег: - Тебе что-нибудь известно об Агентстве национальной безопасности. Это был не первый его звонок, но ответ оставался неизменным: - Ты имеешь в виду Совет национальной безопасности.

Молчание. Тогда она осторожно двинулась в направлении Третьего узла. Подойдя поближе, она увидела, что в руке Хейла зажат какой-то предмет, посверкивавший в свете мониторов.

Новые инструкции не оставляли места сомнениям: необходимо во что бы то ни стало найти канадца. Ни перед чем не останавливаться, только бы заполучить кольцо. Беккера очень удивило, что это кольцо с какой-то невразумительной надписью представляет собой такую важность. Однако Стратмор ничего не объяснил, а Беккер не решился спросить. АНБ, - подумал .


  1. Grace S. 11.05.2021 at 19:01

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