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- Biodiversity and Conservation class 12 Notes Biology
- Biotechnology and biodiversity conservation: are they conflicting
Biodiversity and Conservation class 12 Notes Biology
The United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity CBD is intended to ensure conservation of biodiversity, its wise use, and sharing of benefits from use of genetic resources.
When that vision is realized, biodiversity will be valued, conserved, restored, and wisely used, so it can maintain ecosystem services and sustain a healthy planet, delivering benefits essential for all humans Vision. Related to this, in , the UN created the Sustainable Development Goals SDGs , an overarching plan for people, planet, and prosperity designed to achieve a multi-faceted vision, which includes living in harmony with nature.
They have called for assistance in developing realistic baselines and frameworks that will support ambitious and measurable targets for a Post SP relevant to the SDGs that will make progress toward the Vision [ 4]. We offer this response. It follows the well-known drivers-state-pressure-response approach for addressing biodiversity conservation on land [ 5 ].
A compatible marine approach is under development. It maps all but Antarctica Fig. These include:. C1: Increase conservation efforts to secure endangered species and protect all remaining primary ecosystem fragments. Mainstream sustainable practices such as protecting good farmland, practicing productive regenerative agriculture, and keeping nitrogen out of freshwater. Maintain pollinators and increase ecological restoration.
Across landscapes integrate sustainable natural resource extraction and activities such as tourism, grazing, and use of wildlife where appropriate and sustainable with indigenous knowledge and well-managed, equitable, and properly funded PA networks. Map of the Three Global Conditions, with their relative global areas illustrated in bar at bottom Supplemental Methods.
Eckert IV projection. The three global conditions, summary statistics computations and sources in Supplementary Methods. C3: Retain overall ecological integrity and associated global processes such as carbon storage and rainfall generation, fluvial flows, and large migrations; prevent further fragmentation allowing only rare nodes of intense industrial development enveloped in a largely wild matrix.
Remove and restore anomalies. Establish large PAs and indigenous and community conserved areas. Secure indigenous knowledge and livelihoods. Most of these responses and practices are already found in the current Aichi Targets see Supplementary Text in Supplementary Materials. Some actions identified for one condition may be applicable in another. In addition, ecological connectivity should be secured across all three conditions for resident and migratory species and for resilience to climate change.
Developed nations can also support efforts elsewhere, especially when their trade footprints cause biodiversity loss in other countries. To make the map Fig. A break point of half the land transformed by cities, cultivation, and intensive grazing was set for the boundary between C1 and C2.
Within each of the conditions might be found small elements of other conditions. Conservation and human-use values vary by condition. The relative distribution of human population, above- and below-ground carbon, existing PAs, distribution of vertebrates and threatened vertebrates, KBAs, indigenous interests in land, and food calories produced are summarized by condition in Table 1 source data and analysis methods described in Supplementary Materials.
The concentration of people, food production, and threatened vertebrates in highly productive C1, the abundance of KBAs and PAs that could be interconnected compatibly with natural resource extraction in C2, and the prevalence of carbon-rich soils and forests, small human populations, and indigenous management in C3 exemplify why it is useful to sort conservation strategies by varied societal and natural conditions. We acknowledge that these boundaries are fuzzy and that national maps should be improved through calibration and expert ground-truthing.
Nevertheless, these generalizations hold true enough to be useful for developing regional and global-scale strategies. The Post SP will be negotiated politically, not by scientists. The 3Cs are scientifically grounded yet easy for a non-scientist to visualize and understand.
Maps of the 3Cs can be viewed by decision-makers on their hand-held devices where they can compare their conditions with those of other countries global, regional, and national maps are at naturebeyond The maps can be updated and monitored over time. The 3Cs provide a coherent framework for countries to commit to global goals through realistic measures suitable for their current national conditions.
It provides a basis for common but differentiated responsibilities for international cooperation to protect the earth ecosystem that can also serve as a guide for the participation of non-state actors.
If implemented simultaneously, the strategies and actions identified by the 3Cs would be transformational steps toward securing biodiversity and realizing the Vision. Their insights and comments helped to shape this paper.
Summary for policymakers of the global assessment report on biodiversity and ecosystem services of the intergovernmental science-policy platform on biodiversity and ecosystem services. Advance unedited version, 6 May Convention on Biological Diversity , Strategic plan for biodiversity United Nations General Assembly.
Transforming our world: the agenda for sustainable development. Convention on Biological Diversity. Decision adopted by the conference of the parties to the convention on Biological diversity.
Kristensen P. Conserv Biol ; 26 : 1 — 4. Ellis EC. Ecol Monogr ; 85 : — Nat Commun ; 7 : Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide.
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Article Contents Acknowledgements. Article Navigation. Three global conditions for biodiversity conservation and sustainable use: an implementation framework Harvey Locke , Harvey Locke. Corresponding author. E-mail: harvey hlconservation. Oxford Academic.
Google Scholar. Erle C Ellis. Oscar Venter. Richard Schuster. Department of Biology, Carleton University. Keping Ma. Xiaoli Shen. Stephen Woodley. Naomi Kingston. Nina Bhola. Bernardo B N Strassburg. Axel Paulsch , Axel Paulsch. Institute for Biodiversity. Brooke Williams. James E M Watson. Select Format Select format. Permissions Icon Permissions.
These include: C1: Increase conservation efforts to secure endangered species and protect all remaining primary ecosystem fragments. Figure 1. Open in new tab Download slide. Table 1. Cities and farms. Shared landscapes. Large wild areas. Whole world. Open in new tab. Search ADS. Issue Section:. Download all slides. Supplementary data. View Metrics. Email alerts Article activity alert.
Biotechnology and biodiversity conservation: are they conflicting
The United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity CBD is intended to ensure conservation of biodiversity, its wise use, and sharing of benefits from use of genetic resources. When that vision is realized, biodiversity will be valued, conserved, restored, and wisely used, so it can maintain ecosystem services and sustain a healthy planet, delivering benefits essential for all humans Vision. Related to this, in , the UN created the Sustainable Development Goals SDGs , an overarching plan for people, planet, and prosperity designed to achieve a multi-faceted vision, which includes living in harmony with nature. They have called for assistance in developing realistic baselines and frameworks that will support ambitious and measurable targets for a Post SP relevant to the SDGs that will make progress toward the Vision [ 4]. We offer this response. It follows the well-known drivers-state-pressure-response approach for addressing biodiversity conservation on land [ 5 ]. A compatible marine approach is under development.
CONSERVATION. Biodiversity. Biodiversity Conservation. List () documents the extinction of species (including vertebrates,
Download revision notes for Biodiversity and Conservation class 12 Notes and score high in exams. These are the Biodiversity and Conservation class 12 Notes prepared by team of expert teachers. The revision notes help you revise the whole chapter 15 in minutes. Revision notes in exam days is one of the best tips recommended by teachers during exam days. Biodiversity or biological diversity is the occurrence of different types of ecosystems, different species of organisms and their variant like biotypes, ecotypes and gene adapted to different climates and environments of different regions including their interactions and processes.
Background & Summary
A glossary of definitions for terms relating to biodiversity, ecosystems services and conservation. All definitions are referenced, where possible preference has been given to internationally recognised definitions for example those defined by international conventions or agreements. The terms have been chosen to support understanding of biodiversity and conservation issues, and terms relating to biodiversity loss are complemented by those relating to conservation responses supported by international conservation organisations, governments, scientists and business sectors. More detailed explanations are provided for a number of key terms, to provide further background information. The in-situ concept is best understood in contrast to ex-situ conservation. While the identification of ex-situ initiatives leaves little room for ambiguity e. Both approaches follow the same purpose: To enable biodiversity to maintain itself within the context of the ecosystem in which it has been found, ie.
All in one Note By chapter 1. Note: for a number of reasons, I highly recommend the pdf version this time. To register Biology Tuitions on Vedantu. He is also an adjunct member of the Faculty of the University of Maryland. These programmes try to ensure that the gene pool is maintained and inbreeding is avoided. No comments: Post a Comment. Boost your grades with downloadable PDF resources, videos, and courses.
Biodiversity is the biological variety and variability of life on Earth. Biodiversity is typically a measure of variation at the genetic , species , and ecosystem level. Rapid environmental changes typically cause mass extinctions.
To ensure the site displays correctly, please use a more modern browser, like Firefox or Google Chrome. Biodiversity is the sum of all the different species of animals, plants, fungi and microbial organisms living on Earth and the variety of habitats in which they live. Scientists estimate that more than 10 million different species inhabit Earth.