Drugs And Substance Abuse In Kenya Pdf

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Criminal activity and social problems are recognized as important outcomes of substance use and abuse. Little research has been carried out on substance use among prison inmates in Kenya.

Drug addiction, also called substance use disorder, is a disease that affects a person's brain and behavior and leads to an inability to control the use of a legal or illegal drug or medication. Substances such as alcohol, marijuana and nicotine also are considered drugs. When you're addicted, you may continue using the drug despite the harm it causes.

The Effects of Drug and Substance Abuse in Secondary Schools: The Case of Garissa County, Kenya

The Unit is a section of the Criminal Investigations Department charged with the responsibility of enforcing the Narcotics and psychotropic substances Control Act No. The Unit was established in to specifically deal with illicit drug trafficking. Our Vision …To have a drug free Society in Kenya. Drugs of abuse What is a drug — is any substance legal or illegal which when consumed affects the Normal functioning of the Central nervous system by either stimulating or depressing it.

Drug Abuse — is a repeated self-administration of a drug for non-medical reasons. Common Drugs of Abuse. It is spread throughout the country due to its easy availability and low prices. The cultivation of the herbal cannabis was not a problem of much concern to the society in the early 80s.

Its socio- economic effects were not felt then. It was a source of income to the neighbours of Mt. Kenya and Aberdares forests, Kisii, Isebania, Taveta among other places. The Kenyan Government upon seeing the impact of drug abuse in early 90 enacted the law to cater for drug related offences in Lately, large quantities originate from Uganda and Tanzania.

Extracts:Morphine, Codeine, Heroine [pictures] Heroin is a semi-synthetic derivative of morphine. It is a Psycho depressant. Morphine and codeine belong to this group and have a High degree of analgesic activity. A small percentage however is locally consumed in Kenya. It is later purified to become white heroine. Black Heroine — also known as Tar heroine Mostly from turkey.

It is not common in Kenya. Heroine is commonly abused in the Coastal region due to tourism destination and Nairobi because it is a business destination for many international businesses.

The two towns receive lots of foreigners. Kenya is an ideal transit point due to its geographical and strategic position and also the good communication network. It has good airlines like the KQ which is considered No. Many Ships also dock at our sea port. Coastal front is a tourism hub.

Stable political situation in the region has also contributed. Our borders are porous and long hence penetration by drug dealers. Kenya is a transit point to Europe, Middle East and South Africa but small quantities have found their way into Kenyan Market just for the same reasons as earlier stated under heroine.

Cocaine and crack are stimulants hence speed up the activities of the CNS. Crack is derived from cocaine. Cocaine Powder is dissolved in a solution of ammonia or sodium bicarbonate Baking soda and water. The solution is boiled until a solid substance separates from the boiling mixture. The solid substance Crack Cocaine is allowed to dry and then broken or cut into rocks.

Abusers heat the crack and smoke it. Psychotropic Substances These include variety of legal and illegal psychotropic substances that can be readily bought over the counter in most chemists or drug shops or stolen from Health Centres and Hospitals.

Current science is showing change to critical parts of the brain from use of these drugs. Also, in high doses most of these drugs can cause a sharp increase in body temperature malignant hyperthermia leading to muscle breakdown and kidney and cardiovascular system failure. GHB, Rohypnol, and ketamine are predominantly central nervous system depressants.

Because they are often colourless, tasteless, and odourless, they can be added to beverages and ingested unknowingly. These drugs emerged a few years ago as date rape drugs. Because of concern about their abuse, to aid in sexual assault. GHB Since about , GHB gamma hydroxybutyrate has been abused for euphoric, sedative, and anabolic body building effects. It is a central nervous system depressant that was widely available over-the-counter in health food stores during the s and until s.

GHB was purchased largely by body builders to aid fat reduction and muscle building. Coma and seizures can occur following abuse of GHB and, when combined with methamphetamine, there appears to be an increased risk of seizure. Combining use with other drugs such as alcohol can result in nausea and difficulty breathing. GHB may also produce withdrawal effects, including insomnia, anxiety, tremors, and sweating. GHB and two of its precursors, gamma butyrolactone GBL and 1, 4 butanediol BD have been involved in poisonings, overdoses, date rapes, and deaths.

These products, obtainable over the internet and sometimes still sold in health food stores, are also available at some gyms, raves, nightclubs, gay male parties, college campuses, and the street. They are commonly mixed with alcohol which may cause unconsciousness , have a short duration of action, and are not easily detectable on routine hospital toxicology screens.

Rohypnol Rohypnol, a trade name for flunitrazepam, has been of particular concern for the last few years because of its abuse in date rape. It belongs to a class of drugs knows as benzodiazepines. When mixed with alcohol, Rohypnol can incapacitate victims and prevent them from resisting sexual assault.

It can produce "anterograde amnesia," which means individuals may not remember events they experienced while under the effects of the drugs.

Ketamine Ketamine is an anaesthetic that has been approved for both human and animal use in medical settings since ; about 90 percent of the ketamine legally sold is intended for veterinary use.

It can be injected or snorted. Ketamine is also known as Special K or vitamin K. Certain doses of ketamine can cause dream-like states and hallucinations, and it has become common in club and rave scenes and has been used as a date rape drug. At high doses, ketamine can cause delirium, amnesia, impaired motor function, high blood pressure, depression, and potentially fatal respiratory problems. Learning and Memory impairment due to shrinkage of brain.

Tremors, slurred speech, or impaired coordination. Drop in attendance and performance at work or school. Unexplained need for money or financial problems. May borrow or steal to get it. Engaging in secretive or suspicious behaviours. Sudden change in friends, favourite hangouts, and hobbies. Frequently getting into trouble fights, accidents, illegal activities. Unexplained change in personality or attitude.

Sudden mood swings, irritability, or angry outbursts. Periods of unusual hyperactivity, agitation, or giddiness. Marijuana: Glassy, red eyes; loud talking, inappropriate laughter followed by sleepiness; loss of interest, motivation; weight gain or loss. Depressants including Xanax, Valium, GHB : Contracted pupils; drunk-like; difficulty concentrating; clumsiness; poor judgment; slurred speech; sleepiness.

Stimulants including amphetamines, cocaine, crystal meth : Dilated pupils; hyperactivity; euphoria; irritability; anxiety; excessive talking followed by depression or excessive sleeping at odd times; may go long periods of time without eating or sleeping; weight loss; dry mouth and nose. Hallucinogens LSD, PCP : Dilated pupils; bizarre and irrational behaviour including paranoia, aggression, hallucinations; mood swings; detachment from people; absorption with self or other objects, slurred speech; confusion.

Heroin: Contracted pupils; no response of pupils to light; needle marks; sleeping at unusual times; sweating; vomiting; coughing, sniffling; twitching; loss of appetite. Having bloodshot eyes or dilated pupils; using eye drops to try to mask these signs. Skipping class; declining grades; suddenly getting into trouble at school. Missing money, valuables, or prescriptions.

Acting uncharacteristically isolated, withdrawn, angry, or depressed. Dropping one group of friends for another; being secretive about the new peer group. Loss of interest in old hobbies; lying about new interests and activities.

Demanding more privacy; locking doors; avoiding eye contact; sneaking around. Young people who persistently abuse substances often experience an array of problems, including academic difficulties, health-related problems including mental health , poor peer relationships, and involvement with the juvenile justice system.

Additionally, there are consequences for family members, the community, and the entire society. Declining grades, absenteeism from school and other activities, and increased potential for dropping out of school are problems associated with adolescent substance abuse. Cognitive and behavioural problems experienced by alcohol- and drug-using youth may interfere with their academic performance and also present obstacles to learning for their classmates.

Physical health. Injuries due to accidents such as car accidents , physical disabilities and diseases, and the effects of possible overdoses are among the health-related consequences of teenage substance abuse.

A huge numbers of youth involved with alcohol and other drugs face an increased risk of death through suicide, homicide, accident, and illness. Some of the illness associated with drugs includes:. These limited examples illustrate the catastrophic health-related consequences of substance abuse among adolescents.

Besides personal and family distress, additional healthcare costs and loss of future productivity place burdens on the community. Tolerance and physical dependency will develop with continued use. The abuser will experience withdrawal symptoms which is extremely unpleasant if he quits. This include: muscle and joint pain, fever, sweats, chills, stomach cramps and diarrhoea.

Mental health. Mental health problems such as depression, developmental lags, apathy, withdrawal, and other psychosocial dysfunctions frequently are linked to substance abuse among adolescents. Others include:.

A review of the public sector substance use disorder treatment and prevention systems in Kenya

Box — , Nyahururu — Kenya Email: rkabugi09 gmail. Despite efforts by government and non-governmental organizations across the world to reduce cases of drug and substance abuse, the prevalence of substance use among the youth and young adults is alarming. Jesus himself cared for the people he ministered to, making sure to feed them, heal them and even raise the dead. Some of the opportunities of faith based organizations in the prevention of substance use that were covered in the paper include: creation of public awareness, community mobilization, counseling and rehabilitation services, and conducting mentorship programmes. Secondary data research method was used to collect, analyse and interpret the findings. The review concludes that the Faith Based Organizations stand a chance to do more in helping youth and young adults to discard the habit of drug and substance abuse. Further, the review recommends that Faith Based Organizations should focus on strengthening collaborations, expanding local resources, and building capacity to provide substance abuse prevention, treatment, and mental health services, as well as program management.


rise. The study findings highlighted the factors influencing drug and substance abuse amongst the youths in Kenya, the community initiatives to curb the vice and.


Substance use among inmates at the Eldoret prison in Western Kenya

Purpose: The main objective of this research was to assess the factors influencing drugs and substance abuse among public secondary school students in Kiambu County Kenya. Methodology: Mixed methodology was used to gather both qualitative and quantitative data. A descriptive survey study design was used to assess the factors influencing public secondary school students.

This paper investigated the causes and effects of drug and substance abuse among students in secondary schools in Garissa County, Kenya. Many school children are being wasted due to drug and substance abuse despite efforts by various stakeholders such as the government, parents, teachers, and religious leaders to combat drug abuse menace. The study sample was 13 head teachers, teachers, and students.

A review of the public sector substance use disorder treatment and prevention systems in Kenya

Substance abuse , also known as drug abuse , is use of a drug in amounts or by methods which are harmful to the individual or others. It is a form of substance-related disorder. Differing definitions of drug abuse are used in public health, medical and criminal justice contexts.

Substance abuse

The Unit is a section of the Criminal Investigations Department charged with the responsibility of enforcing the Narcotics and psychotropic substances Control Act No. The Unit was established in to specifically deal with illicit drug trafficking. Our Vision …To have a drug free Society in Kenya. Drugs of abuse What is a drug — is any substance legal or illegal which when consumed affects the Normal functioning of the Central nervous system by either stimulating or depressing it. Drug Abuse — is a repeated self-administration of a drug for non-medical reasons. Common Drugs of Abuse. It is spread throughout the country due to its easy availability and low prices.

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