Breastfeeding And Breast Cancer Pdf
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- Breastfeeding History
- Breastfeeding and breast cancer risk
- Breast Cancer Risk Assessment and Screening in Average-Risk Women
- Breastfeeding and Breast Cancer Risk Reduction: Implications for Black Mothers
A population-based case-control study of breast cancer with a focus on premenopausal women under 45 years of age, conducted in three geographic regions of the United States, enabled the evaluation of risk in relation to varying breastfeeding practices. Among premenopausal parous women 1, cases, 1, random-digit-dialing controls , a history of breastfeeding for two or more weeks was associated with a relative risk RR of 0.
Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. DOI: A Corpus ID: Lactation history and breast cancer risk. Freudenheim and J.
Breast cancer is cancer that develops from breast tissue. Risk factors for developing breast cancer include being female, obesity , a lack of physical exercise, alcoholism , hormone replacement therapy during menopause , ionizing radiation , an early age at first menstruation , having children late in life or not at all, older age, having a prior history of breast cancer, and a family history of breast cancer.
The balance of benefits versus harms of breast cancer screening is controversial. A Cochrane review found that it was unclear if mammographic screening does more harm than good, in that a large proportion of women who test positive turn out not to have the disease. Outcomes for breast cancer vary depending on the cancer type, the extent of disease , and the person's age. Breast cancer most commonly presents as a lump that feels different from the rest of the breast tissue.
Another symptom complex of breast cancer is Paget's disease of the breast. This syndrome presents as skin changes resembling eczema; such as redness, discoloration or mild flaking of the nipple skin. As Paget's disease of the breast advances, symptoms may include tingling, itching, increased sensitivity, burning, and pain. There may also be discharge from the nipple. Approximately half the women diagnosed with Paget's disease of the breast also have a lump in the breast.
Inflammatory Breast Cancer presents with similar effects. The visual effects of Inflammatory Breast Cancer is a result of a blockage of lymph vessels by cancer cells. This type of breast cancer is seen in more commonly diagnosed in younger ages, obese women and African American women.
As inflammatory breast cancer does not present as a lump there can sometimes be a delay in diagnosis. In rare cases, what initially appears as a fibroadenoma hard, movable non-cancerous lump could in fact be a phyllodes tumor.
Phyllodes tumors are formed within the stroma connective tissue of the breast and contain glandular as well as stromal tissue. Phyllodes tumors are not staged in the usual sense; they are classified on the basis of their appearance under the microscope as benign, borderline or malignant.
Malignant tumors can result in metastatic tumors— secondary tumors originating from the primary tumor that spread beyond the site of origination. The symptoms caused by metastatic breast cancer will depend on the location of metastasis. Common sites of metastasis include bone, liver, lung, and brain. These symptoms are called non-specific symptoms because they could be manifestations of many other illnesses.
Most symptoms of breast disorders, including most lumps, do not turn out to represent underlying breast cancer. The primary risk factors for breast cancer are being female and older age. One study indicates that exposure to light pollution is a risk factor for the development of breast cancer. Obesity and drinking alcoholic beverages are among the most common modifiable risk factors.
Studies show that those who rapidly gain weight in adulthood are at higher risk than those who have been overweight since childhood. Likewise excess fat in the midsection seems to induce a higher risk than excess weight carried in the lower body.
This implies that the food one eats is of greater importance than one's BMI. The consumption of alcohol is linked to the risk for breast cancer. Drinking alcoholic beverages increases the risk of breast cancer , even at relatively low one to three drinks per week and moderate levels.
A review found that studies trying to link fiber intake with breast cancer produced mixed results. Smoking tobacco appears to increase the risk of breast cancer, with the greater the amount smoked and the earlier in life that smoking began, the higher the risk.
The risk is not negated by regular exercise, though it is lowered. There is an association between use of hormonal birth control and the development of premenopausal breast cancer,   but whether birth control pills actually cause premenopausal breast cancer is a matter of debate. The association between breast feeding and breast cancer has not been clearly determined; some studies have found support for an association while others have not.
Other risk factors include radiation  and circadian disruptions related to shift-work  and routine late-night eating. Other genetic predispositions include the density of the breast tissue and hormonal levels. Women with dense breast tissue are more likely to get tumors and are less likely to be diagnosed with breast cancer - because the dense tissue makes tumors less visible on mammograms.
Furthermore, women with naturally high estrogen and progesterone levels are also at higher risk for tumor development. Breast changes like atypical ductal hyperplasia  and lobular carcinoma in situ ,   found in benign breast conditions such as fibrocystic breast changes , are correlated with an increased breast cancer risk.
Diabetes mellitus might also increase the risk of breast cancer. Breast cancer, like other cancers , occurs because of an interaction between an environmental external factor and a genetically susceptible host. Normal cells divide as many times as needed and stop. They attach to other cells and stay in place in tissues.
Cells become cancerous when they lose their ability to stop dividing, to attach to other cells, to stay where they belong, and to die at the proper time. Normal cells will self-destruct programmed cell death when they are no longer needed.
Until then, cells are protected from programmed death by several protein clusters and pathways. Sometimes the genes along these protective pathways are mutated in a way that turns them permanently "on", rendering the cell incapable of self-destructing when it is no longer needed. This is one of the steps that causes cancer in combination with other mutations. Mutations that can lead to breast cancer have been experimentally linked to estrogen exposure. Abnormal growth factor signaling in the interaction between stromal cells and epithelial cells can facilitate malignant cell growth.
In the United States, 10 to 20 percent of women with breast cancer or ovarian cancer have a first- or second-degree relative with one of these diseases. Men with breast cancer have an even higher likelihood. The familial tendency to develop these cancers is called hereditary breast—ovarian cancer syndrome. The best known of these, the BRCA mutations , confer a lifetime risk of breast cancer of between 60 and 85 percent and a lifetime risk of ovarian cancer of between 15 and 40 percent.
These mutations are either inherited or acquired after birth. Presumably, they allow further mutations, which allow uncontrolled division, lack of attachment, and metastasis to distant organs. This is caused by unobserved risk factors.
Furthermore, certain latent viruses, may decrease the expression of the BRCA1 gene and increase the risk of breast tumors. GATA-3 directly controls the expression of estrogen receptor ER and other genes associated with epithelial differentiation, and the loss of GATA-3 leads to loss of differentiation and poor prognosis due to cancer cell invasion and metastasis. Most types of breast cancer are easy to diagnose by microscopic analysis of a sample - or biopsy - of the affected area of the breast.
Also, there are types of breast cancer that require specialized lab exams. The two most commonly used screening methods, physical examination of the breasts by a healthcare provider and mammography, can offer an approximate likelihood that a lump is cancer, and may also detect some other lesions, such as a simple cyst. A needle aspiration can be performed in a healthcare provider's office or clinic. A local anesthetic may be used to numb the breast tissue to prevent pain during the procedure, but may not be necessary if the lump isn't beneath the skin.
A finding of clear fluid makes the lump highly unlikely to be cancerous, but bloody fluid may be sent off for inspection under a microscope for cancerous cells.
Together, physical examination of the breasts, mammography, and FNAC can be used to diagnose breast cancer with a good degree of accuracy. Other options for biopsy include a core biopsy or vacuum-assisted breast biopsy ,  which are procedures in which a section of the breast lump is removed; or an excisional biopsy , in which the entire lump is removed.
Very often the results of physical examination by a healthcare provider, mammography, and additional tests that may be performed in special circumstances such as imaging by ultrasound or MRI are sufficient to warrant excisional biopsy as the definitive diagnostic and primary treatment method.
High-grade invasive ductal carcinoma, with minimal tubule formation, marked pleomorphism , and prominent mitoses , 40x field. Micrograph showing a lymph node invaded by ductal breast carcinoma, with an extension of the tumor beyond the lymph node. Breast cancers are classified by several grading systems. Each of these influences the prognosis and can affect treatment response.
Description of a breast cancer optimally includes all of these factors. Breast cancer screening refers to testing otherwise-healthy women for breast cancer in an attempt to achieve an earlier diagnosis under the assumption that early detection will improve outcomes. A number of screening tests have been employed including clinical and self breast exams , mammography , genetic screening, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging.
A clinical or self breast exam involves feeling the breast for lumps or other abnormalities. Clinical breast exams are performed by health care providers, while self-breast exams are performed by the person themselves. During a screening, the breast is compressed and a technician takes photos from multiple angles. A general mammogram takes photos of the entire breast, while a diagnostic mammogram focuses on a specific lump or area of concern. A number of national bodies recommend breast cancer screening.
For the average woman, the U. Preventive Services Task Force and American College of Physicians recommends mammography every two years in women between the ages of 50 and 74,   the Council of Europe recommends mammography between 50 and 69 with most programs using a 2-year frequency,  while the European Commission recommends mammography from 45 to 75 every 2 to 3 years,  and in Canada screening is recommended between the ages of 50 and 74 at a frequency of 2 to 3 years.
The Cochrane collaboration states that the best quality evidence neither demonstrates a reduction in cancer specific, nor a reduction in all cause mortality from screening mammography. Women can reduce their risk of breast cancer by maintaining a healthy weight, reducing alcohol use , increasing physical activity, and breast-feeding. The American Cancer Society and the American Society of Clinical Oncology advised in that people should eat a diet high in vegetables, fruits, whole grains, and legumes.
Removal of both breasts before any cancer has been diagnosed or any suspicious lump or other lesion has appeared a procedure known as "prophylactic bilateral mastectomy " or "risk reducing mastectomy" may be considered in women with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations, which are associated with a substantially heightened risk for an eventual diagnosis of breast cancer.
It is not recommended routinely. Testing in an average-risk person is particularly likely to return one of these indeterminate, useless results. The selective estrogen receptor modulators such as tamoxifen reduce the risk of breast cancer but increase the risk of thromboembolism and endometrial cancer.
The management of breast cancer depends on various factors, including the stage of the cancer and the person's age. Treatments are more aggressive when the cancer is more advanced or there is a higher risk of recurrence of the cancer following treatment. Breast cancer is usually treated with surgery , which may be followed by chemotherapy or radiation therapy, or both.
A multidisciplinary approach is preferable. Monoclonal antibodies, or other immune-modulating treatments , may be administered in certain cases of metastatic and other advanced stages of breast cancer. Although this range of treatment is still being studied.
Surgery involves the physical removal of the tumor, typically along with some of the surrounding tissue. One or more lymph nodes may be biopsied during the surgery; increasingly the lymph node sampling is performed by a sentinel lymph node biopsy.
Breastfeeding and breast cancer risk
Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer and a leading cause of death from cancer among U. Studies have suggested that breastfeeding reduces breast cancer risk among parous women, and there is mounting evidence that this association may differ by subtype such that breastfeeding may be more protective of some invasive breast cancer types. The purpose of this review is to discuss breast cancer disparities in the context of breastfeeding and the implications for black mothers. Black women in the U. In addition to individual challenges to breastfeeding, black women may also differentially face contextual barriers such as a lack of social and cultural acceptance in their communities, inadequate support from the healthcare community, and unsupportive work environments.
Breast cancer is cancer that develops from breast tissue. Risk factors for developing breast cancer include being female, obesity , a lack of physical exercise, alcoholism , hormone replacement therapy during menopause , ionizing radiation , an early age at first menstruation , having children late in life or not at all, older age, having a prior history of breast cancer, and a family history of breast cancer. The balance of benefits versus harms of breast cancer screening is controversial. A Cochrane review found that it was unclear if mammographic screening does more harm than good, in that a large proportion of women who test positive turn out not to have the disease. Outcomes for breast cancer vary depending on the cancer type, the extent of disease , and the person's age. Breast cancer most commonly presents as a lump that feels different from the rest of the breast tissue.
Breast Cancer Risk Assessment and Screening in Average-Risk Women
But there is a lot of good news about breast cancer these days. Treatments keep getting better, and we know more than ever about ways to prevent the disease. These eight simple steps can help lower the risk of breast cancer.
Breastfeeding and Breast Cancer Risk Reduction: Implications for Black Mothers
Breastfeeding can lower breast cancer risk, especially if a woman breastfeeds for longer than 1 year. There is less benefit for women who breastfeed for less than a year, which is more typical for women living in countries such as the United States. There are several reasons why breastfeeding protects breast health:. Beyond breast health protection, breastfeeding provides important health benefits to the baby and helps the bonding process. If breastfeeding is an option for you, you may want to consider it.
Это не лишено смысла. Джабба сразу понял, что Сьюзан права. Энсей Танкадо сделал карьеру на простых числах.
Ни в коем случае! - отрезал Стратмор. Хейл вскипел: - Послушайте меня, старина. Вы отпускаете меня и Сьюзан на вашем лифте, мы уезжаем, и через несколько часов я ее отпускаю. Стратмор понял, что ставки повышаются. Он впутал в это дело Сьюзан и должен ее вызволить. Голос его прозвучал, как всегда, твердо: - А как же мой план с Цифровой крепостью. Хейл засмеялся: - Можете пристраивать к ней черный ход - я слова не скажу.
Все прочитали: - …в этих бомбах использовались разные виды взрывчатого вещества… обладающие идентичными химическими характеристиками. Эти изотопы нельзя разделить путем обычного химического извлечения. Кроме незначительной разницы в атомном весе, они абсолютно идентичны. - Атомный вес! - возбужденно воскликнул Джабба. - Единственное различие - их атомный вес. Это и есть ключ. Давайте оба веса.
Сьюзан не могла с этим смириться, видя, как он выкладывает за их обед свою дневную заработную плату, но спорить с ним было бесполезно. Она в конце концов перестала протестовать, но это продолжало ее беспокоить. Я зарабатываю гораздо больше, чем в состоянии потратить, - думала она, - поэтому будет вполне естественным, если я буду платить. Но если не считать его изрядно устаревших представлений о рыцарстве, Дэвид, по мнению Сьюзан, вполне соответствовал образцу идеального мужчины. Внимательный и заботливый, умный, с прекрасным чувством юмора и, самое главное, искренне интересующийся тем, что она делает.
Да. Совершенно верно. Простые числа играют важнейшую роль в японской культуре.
Еще раз убедившись, что Сьюзан и коммандер поглощены беседой, Хейл аккуратно нажал пять клавиш на клавиатуре ее компьютера, и через секунду монитор вернулся к жизни. - Порядок, - усмехнулся. Завладеть персональными кодами компьютеров Третьего узла было проще простого.
ГЛАВА 106 К окну комнаты заседаний при кабинете директора, расположенной высоко над куполом шифровалки, прильнули три головы. От раздавшегося взрыва содрогнулся весь комплекс Агентства национальной безопасности. Лиланд Фонтейн, Чед Бринкерхофф и Мидж Милкен в безмолвном ужасе смотрели на открывшуюся их глазам картину. Тридцатью метрами ниже горел купол шифровалки. Поликарбонатная крыша еще была цела, но под ее прозрачной оболочкой бушевало пламя.
И улыбнулся, едва сохраняя спокойствие. - Ты сочтешь это сумасшествием, - сказал Беккер, - но мне кажется, что у тебя есть кое-что, что мне очень. - Да? - Меган внезапно насторожилась. Беккер достал из кармана бумажник. - Конечно, я буду счастлив тебе заплатить.
Когда интервьюер спросил у Сьюзан, не занималась ли она сексом с животными, она с трудом удержалась, чтобы не выбежать из кабинета, но, так или иначе, верх взяли любопытство, перспектива работы на самом острие теории кодирования, возможность попасть во Дворец головоломок и стать членом наиболее секретного клуба в мире - Агентства национальной безопасности. Беккер внимательно слушал ее рассказ. - В самом деле спросили про секс с животными. Сьюзан пожала плечами.
Ну… вообще-то никто не давал мне ваш номер специально. - В голосе мужчины чувствовалось какая-то озабоченность. - Я нашел его в паспорте и хочу разыскать владельца.