List Of Human Diseases And Their Causative Organisms Pdf

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Infectious diseases are disorders caused by organisms — such as bacteria, viruses, fungi or parasites. Many organisms live in and on our bodies.

These infectious microscopic organisms are known as pathogens, and they can multiply quickly. Examples of pathogens include:.

Inhalation exposes the upper and lower respiratory tracts of humans to a variety of airborne particles and vapors. Airborne transmission of pathogenic microorganisms to humans from the environment, animals, or other humans can result in disease. Inhalation is an important route of exposure as the lung is more susceptible to infection than the gastrointestinal tract.

What to know about infections

Infectious diseases are disorders caused by organisms — such as bacteria, viruses, fungi or parasites. Many organisms live in and on our bodies. They're normally harmless or even helpful.

But under certain conditions, some organisms may cause disease. Some infectious diseases can be passed from person to person. Some are transmitted by insects or other animals. And you may get others by consuming contaminated food or water or being exposed to organisms in the environment. Signs and symptoms vary depending on the organism causing the infection, but often include fever and fatigue. Mild infections may respond to rest and home remedies, while some life-threatening infections may need hospitalization.

Many infectious diseases, such as measles and chickenpox, can be prevented by vaccines. Frequent and thorough hand-washing also helps protect you from most infectious diseases. Each infectious disease has its own specific signs and symptoms. General signs and symptoms common to a number of infectious diseases include:. An easy way to catch most infectious diseases is by coming in contact with a person or an animal with the infection.

Infectious diseases can be spread through direct contact such as:. Person to person. Infectious diseases commonly spread through the direct transfer of bacteria, viruses or other germs from one person to another. This can happen when an individual with the bacterium or virus touches, kisses, or coughs or sneezes on someone who isn't infected. These germs can also spread through the exchange of body fluids from sexual contact. The person who passes the germ may have no symptoms of the disease, but may simply be a carrier.

Disease-causing organisms also can be passed by indirect contact. Many germs can linger on an inanimate object, such as a tabletop, doorknob or faucet handle. When you touch a doorknob handled by someone ill with the flu or a cold, for example, you can pick up the germs he or she left behind. If you then touch your eyes, mouth or nose before washing your hands, you may become infected. Some germs rely on insect carriers — such as mosquitoes, fleas, lice or ticks — to move from host to host. These carriers are known as vectors.

Mosquitoes can carry the malaria parasite or West Nile virus. Deer ticks may carry the bacterium that causes Lyme disease. Disease-causing germs can also infect you through contaminated food and water.

This mechanism of transmission allows germs to be spread to many people through a single source. Escherichia coli E. While anyone can catch infectious diseases, you may be more likely to get sick if your immune system isn't working properly.

This may occur if:. In addition, certain other medical conditions may predispose you to infection, including implanted medical devices, malnutrition and extremes of age, among others. Most infectious diseases have only minor complications. But some infections — such as pneumonia, AIDS and meningitis — can become life-threatening.

A few types of infections have been linked to a long-term increased risk of cancer:. In addition, some infectious diseases may become silent, only to appear again in the future — sometimes even decades later. For example, someone who's had chickenpox may develop shingles much later in life. Prepare food safely. Keep counters and other kitchen surfaces clean when preparing meals. Cook foods to the proper temperature, using a food thermometer to check for doneness.

For ground meats, that means at least F 71 C ; for poultry, F 74 C ; and for most other meats, at least F 63 C. Also promptly refrigerate leftovers — don't let cooked foods remain at room temperature for long periods of time. Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. Advertising revenue supports our not-for-profit mission. Don't delay your care at Mayo Clinic Schedule your appointment now for safe in-person care.

This content does not have an English version. This content does not have an Arabic version. Overview Infectious diseases are disorders caused by organisms — such as bacteria, viruses, fungi or parasites.

Request an Appointment at Mayo Clinic. What are superbugs and how can I protect myself from infection? Share on: Facebook Twitter. Show references Facts about infectious disease.

Infectious Disease Society of America. Accessed May 29, Jameson JL, et al. Approach to the patient with an infectious disease. In: Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. New York, N. Clean hands count for safe health care. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Kumar P, et al. Infectious diseases and tropical medicine. In: Kumar and Clark's Clinical Medicine.

Philadelphia, Pa. LaRocque R, et al. Causes of infectious diarrhea and other foodborne illnesses in resource-rich settings. Ryan KJ, ed. Infectious diseases: Syndromes and etiologies. In: Sherris Medical Microbiology. File TM, et al. Epidemiology, pathogenesis, and microbiology of community-acquired pneumonia in adults. Accessed May DeClerq E, et al. Approved antiviral drugs over the past 50 years. Clinical Microbiology Reviews. Mousa HAL. Prevention and treatment of influenza, influenza-like illness and common cold by herbal, complementary, and natural therapies.

Caring for someone sick. Germs Infection: Bacterial or viral? Mayo Clinic Minute: What is the Asian longhorned tick? Types of infectious agents What are superbugs and how can I protect myself from infection? What is chikungunya fever, and should I be worried? What is the Asian longhorned tick and where is it found?

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Airborne Infectious Microorganisms

Learn about fungal diseases to keep yourself safe and healthy. Caused by the fungus Blastomyces , which lives in moist soil in parts of the United States and Canada. Caused by Cryptococcus gattii , which lives in tropical and sub-tropical areas of the world, the United States Pacific Northwest, and British Columbia. Caused by the fungus Paracoccidioides , which lives in parts of Central and South America and most often affects men who work outdoors in rural areas. Caused by the fungus Histoplasma , which lives in the environment, often in association with large amounts of bird or bat droppings. Emerging, often multidrug-resistant fungus found in healthcare settings that presents a serious global health threat. A serious infection that can affect the blood, heart, brain, eyes, bones, and other parts of the body in hospitalized patients.

NCBI Bookshelf. New York: Garland Science; Infectious disease can be devastating, and sometimes fatal, to the host. In this part of the chapter we will briefly examine the stages of infection, and the various types of infectious agents. The process of infection can be broken down into stages, each of which can be blocked by different defense mechanisms. In the first stage, a new host is exposed to infectious particles shed by an infected individual. The number, route, mode of transmission, and stability of an infectious agent outside the host determines its infectivity.

Foodborne illness is caused by consuming contaminated foods or beverages. Many different disease-causing microbes or pathogens can contaminate foods, so there are many different types of foodborne illnesses. Most foodborne diseases are infections caused by a variety of bacteria, viruses, and parasites. Other diseases are poisonings caused by harmful toxins or chemicals that have contaminated food. Of note many foodborne pathogens also can be acquired through recreational or drinking water, from contact with animals or their environment, or through person-to-person spread. Please report your suspected foodborne illness to the Minnesota Department of Health.

Causes and Symptoms of Foodborne Illness

Zoonosis is another name for a zoonotic disease. This type of disease passes from an animal or insect to a human. Zoonotic diseases range from minor short-term illness to a major life-changing illness. Certain ones can even cause death.

Immunobiology: The Immune System in Health and Disease. 5th edition.

Слова, которые он прочитал, были теми же, что произнес немец: ПРОВАЛИВАЙ И УМРИ. Девушка, заметно смутившись, посмотрела на свою руку. - Это нацарапал мой дружок… ужасно глупо, правда. Беккер не мог выдавить ни слова. Проваливай и умри. Он не верил своим глазам.

Его пальцы снова задвигались, приводя в действие сотовый модем, и перед глазами появилось: СООБЩЕНИЕ ОТПРАВЛЕНО ГЛАВА 26 Сидя на скамейке напротив городской больницы, Беккер думал о том, что делать. Звонки в агентства услуг сопровождения ничего не дали. Коммандер, недовольный необходимостью говорить по линии, не защищенной от прослушивания, попросил Дэвида не звонить, пока кольцо не окажется в его руках. Он решил было обратиться в полицию - может быть, у них есть данные о рыжеволосых проститутках, - но Стратмор на этот счет выразился недвусмысленно: Вы должны оставаться невидимым. Никто не должен знать о существовании кольца.

What to know about infections

ГЛАВА 60 По зеркальному коридору Двухцветный отправился с наружной террасы в танцевальный зал. Остановившись, чтобы посмотреть на свое отражение в зеркале, он почувствовал, что за спиной у него возникла какая-то фигура. Он повернулся, но было уже поздно.

Именно по этой причине увольнение из АН Б и последующая депортация стали для него таким шоком. Танкадо, как и остальные сотрудники шифровалки, работал над проектом ТРАНСТЕКСТА, будучи уверенным, что в случае успеха эта машина будет использоваться для расшифровки электронной почты только с санкции министерства юстиции. Использование ТРАНСТЕКСТА Агентством национальной безопасности должно было регулироваться примерно так же, как в случае ФБР, которому для установки подслушивающих устройств необходимо судебное постановление. Программное обеспечение ТРАНСТЕКСТА по раскрытию кодов должно храниться в Федеральной резервной системе и министерстве юстиции. Это должно было гарантировать, что АНБ не сможет перехватывать частную переписку законопослушных граждан во всем мире.

 - Стратмор выдержал паузу.  - Какой была твоя первая реакция, когда я сообщил тебе о смерти Танкадо. Сьюзан нахмурилась. - Я подумала, что АНБ его ликвидировало. - Вот .

Ты знаешь, что я не могу… Она фыркнула и снова повернулась к клавиатуре. - Я распечатаю список.

Заинтригованный, он позвонил одному из своих партнеров по теннису, бывшему политологу, перешедшему на службу в Библиотеку конгресса. Слова приятеля его очень удивили. Дело в том, что АНБ не только существовало, но и считалось одной из самых влиятельных правительственных организаций в США и во всем мире.

Но затем стала подниматься вторая стена, за ней третья. Еще несколько мгновений, и весь набор фильтров был восстановлен. Банк данных снова был в безопасности.


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